Sevinç Kiran

The Central Research Institute of Soil, Fertilizer and Water Resources, Ankara 06172, Turkey


In arid and semiarid regions, soil salinity causes salt stress in plants and affects crop production negatively. In this respect, organic farming practices are becoming the foreground as applications that are sensitive to the environment and support sustainability in agriculture. This study aimed to explain the role of vermicompost (VC) for reducing the effect of salt stress on lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa) plant. The experiments were performed with different concentrations of VC (0, 2.5 and 5% VC on a weight per weight basis of soil-w/w) and salt stress treatments (4 and 8 dS m–1 NaCl levels). Under salt stress, shoot heigth, relative,water content (RWC), stomatal conductance (gs), chlorophyll a (Chla) content decreased while electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activitys significantly increased in parallel with the severity of stress. In this study, VC under salt stress significantly increased RWC, gs and Chla, Chlt and carotenoid contents in the leaf tissues; however, MDA and EL contents decreased and SOD and CAT activities increased compared to controls. In all levels of NaCl, the 5% ratio of VC significantly reduced the negative effects of salinity.


antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, organic material, plant growth, salinity

Ahmadpour, R., Armand, N., Hosseinzadeh, S.R. (2016). Effect of vermicompost extract on germination characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under salinity stress. Iranian J. Seed Res., 2(2), 123–134.

Ansari, A.A. (2008). Effect of Vermicompost on the productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and turnip (Brassica campestris). World J. Agric. Sci., 4(3), 333–336.

Amiri, H, Ismaili, A, Hosseinzadeh, S.R. (2017). Influence of vermicompost fertilizer and water deficit stress on morpho-physiological features of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. karaj). Compos Sci. Util., 25, 152–165.

Arancon, N.Q, Lee, S., Edwards, C.A., Atiyeh, R. (2003). Effects of humic acid derived from cattle, food and paper-waste vermicomposts on growth of green-house plants. Pedobiologia, 47, 741–744.

Aydın, A, Kant, C, Turan, M. (2012). Humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants decreasing membrane leakage. African J. Agric. Res., 7(7), 1073–1086.

Ayyobi, H., Olfati, J.A., Peyvast, G.A. (2014). The effects of cow manure vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost on peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) in Torbat-e-Jam and Rasht regions of Iran. Int. J. Recycl Org. Waste Agric., 3, 147–153.

Beyer, W.F., Fridovich, I. (1987). Assaying for superoxide disniutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Anal. Biochem., 16, 559–566.

Beykkhormizi, A., Abrishamchi, P., Ganjeali, A.M. (2016). Effect of vermicompost on some morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under salinity stress. J. Plant Nut., 39(6), 883–893.

Bidabadi, S.S., Dehghanipoodeh, S., Wright, G.C. (2017). Vermicompost leachate reduces some negative effects of salt stress in pomegranate. Int. J. Recycling Organic Waste Agric., 6(3), 255–263.

Butt, M., Ayyub, C.M., Amjad, M., Ahmad, R. (2016). Prolıne application enhances growth of chilli by improving physiological and biochemical attributes under salt stress. Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 53(1), 43–49.

Cakmak, I., Horst, W. (1991). Effect of aluminum on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities in root tip of soybean (Glysin max). Plant Physiol., 83, 463–468.

Campos, M.L.O., Hsie, B.S., Granja, J.A.A., Correia, R.M., de Almeida-Cortez, J.S., Pompelli, M.F. (2012). Photosynthesis and antioxidant activity in Jatropha curcas L. under salt stress. Braz. J. Plant Physiol., 24(1), 55–67.

Chaoui, H.I., Zibilske, L.M., Ohno, T. (2003). Effects of earthworm casts and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability. Soil Biol. Biochem., 35, 295–302.

Chinsamy, M., Kulkarni, M.G., Staden, J.V. (2013). Garden-waste-vermicompost leachate alleviates salinity stress in tomato seedlings by mobilizing salt tolerance mechanisms. Plant Growth Regul., 71, 41–47.

Dionisio-Sese, M.L., Tobita, S. (1998). Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Sci., 135, 1–9.

Distelbarth, H., Nägele, T., Heyer, A.G. (2012). Responses of antioxidant enzymes to cold and high light are not correlated to freezing tolerance in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Biol., 15, 982–990.

Gao, Z., Zhu, H., Gao, J., Yan, C., Mu, C., Wang, D. (2011). Germination responses of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Seeds to various salt-alkaline mixed stress. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 6, 3793–3803.

Hand, M.J., Taffouo, V.D., Nouck, A.E., Nyemene, K.P.J., Tonfack, L.B., Meguekam, T.l., Youmbi, E. (2017). Effects of salt stress on plant growth, nutrient partitioning, chlorophyll content, leaf relative water content, accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidant compounds in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Cultivars. Not. Bot. Horti Agrobot. Cluj-Napoca, 45(2), 481–490.

Jacoby, R.P., Che-Othman, M.H., Millar, A.H., Taylor, N.L. (2016). Analysis of the sodium chloride-dependent respiratory kinetics of wheat mitochondria reveals differential effects on phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating electron transport pathways. Plant Cell Environ., 39, 823–833.

Khan, N.A., Syeed, S., Masood, A., Nazar, R., Iqbal, N. (2010). Application of salicylic acid increases contents of nutrients and antioxidative metabolism in mungbean and alleviates adverse effects of salinity stress. Int. J. Plant Biol., 1(1), 1–8.

Lakhdar, A., Rabhi, M., Ghnaya, T., Montemurro, F., Jedidi, N., Abdelly, C. (2009). Effectiveness of compost use in salt-affected soil. J. Hazard Mater., 171, 29–37.

Lichtenthaler, H.K. (1987). Chlorophyll fluorescence signatures of leaves during the autumnal chlorophyll breakdown. J. Plant Physiol., 131, 101–110.

Lutts, S., Kinet, J.M., Bouharmont, J. (1996). NaCl-induced senescence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. Ann. Bot., 78, 389–398.

Mahajan, S., Tuteja, N. (2005). Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 444, 139–158.

Mittova, V., Guy, M., Tal, M., Volokita, M. (2004). Salinity up-regulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennelli. J. Exp. Bot., 55, 1105–1113.

Munns, R., Tester, M. (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu. Rev. Plant. Biol., 59, 651–681.

Parvaiz, A., Satyawati, S. (2008). Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants review. Plant Soil Environ., 54, 88–99.

Qin, L., Guo, S., Ai, W, Tang, Y., Cheng, Q., Chen, G. (2013). Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: implications for bioregenerative life support system. Adv. Space Res., 51, 476–482.

Sathee, L., Sairam, R.K., Chinnusamy, V., Jha, S.K. (2015). Differential transcript abundance of salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway genes is a determinant of salinity stress tolerance of wheat. Acta Physiol. Plant., 37(169), 1–10.

Tavakkoli, E., Rengasamy, P., McDonald, G.K. (2010). The response of barley to salinity stress differs between hydroponic and soil systems. Funct. Plant Biol., 37(7), 621–633.

Tavakkoli, E., Fatehi, F., Coventry, S., Rengasamy, P.K., McDonald, G.K. (2011). Additive effects of Na+ and Cl– ions on barley growth under salinity stress. J. Exp. Bot., 62(6), 2189–2203.

Yarsi, G., Sıvacı, A., Dasgan, H.Y., Altuntas, Ö., Binzet, R., Akhoundnejad, Y. (2017). Effects of salinity stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and stomata sıze of grafted and ungrafted Galia C8 melon cultivar. Pak. J. Bot., 49(2), 421–426.

Yeo, A.R., Flowers, T.J. (1983). Varietal differences in the toxicity of sodium ions in rice leaves. Physiol. Plant., 59, 189–195.

Zhu, J.K. (2002). Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 53, 247–273.

Zhu, Z., Wei, G., Li, J., Qian, Q., Yu, J. (2004). Silicon alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzymes activity in leaves of salt-stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant Sci., 167, 527–533.



Sevinç Kiran 
The Central Research Institute of Soil, Fertilizer and Water Resources, Ankara 06172, Turkey



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.