PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICALS CHANGES MODULATED BY SEEDS’ PRIMING OF LENTIL (Lens culinaris L.) UNDER SALT STRESS AT GERMINATION STAGE
Seed priming is one of the potential physiological approaches to enhance seed germination under salt stress. The present study examined the role of two seed priming molecules, salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to enhance the salt tolerance in lentil seeds at germination stage. Salt stress caused significant decrease in germination percentage and primary root elongation. This decrease was associated with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and total lipid (TL) contents in embryonic axis. The catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxydase (GPOX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities remained unchanged or decreased significantly under the influence of salt stress, in both embryonic axis and cotyledons. Starch mobilization was not affected by salt stress. The two priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of salt stress. SA and H2O2 applications after dose optimization resulted in significant enhancement of germination percentage and primary root elongation. No significant changes in starch, soluble sugars contents and SOD activity were detected following SA and H2O2 treatments. Seed priming treatments triggered the activities of GPOX and CAT and caused the reduction of lipid peroxidation especially in embryonic axis. TL content and especially the fatty acid C18:3 increased after SA applications. The better performance under salt stress of primed lentil seeds was associated with lower lipid peroxidation, and activation of enzymatic antioxidative defense system. Obtained results confirm the potential for using SA and H2O2 to improve germination and plant growth under salt stress conditions.
salt; seeds priming; Lens culinaris; antioxidant; fatty acids; germination; starch
Amor, N.B., Jimenez, A., Megdiche, W., Lundqvist, M., Sevilla, F., Abdelly, C. (2006). Response of antioxidant systems to NaCl stress in the halophyte Cakile maritime. Physiol. Plant., 126, 446–457.
Anderson, M.D., Prasad, T.K., Stewart, C.R. (1995). Changes in isozymes profiles of catalase, peroxidase, and gluthatione reductase during acclimation to chilling in mesocotyls of maize seedling. Plant. Physiol., 109, 1247–1257.
Apel, K., Hirt, H. (2004). Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol., 55, 373–399.
Ayers. R., Westcot, W. (1985). Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrig. Drain. Pap. 29 (Rev. 1). Available: http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/T0234E/T0234E00.htm
Ben Miled, D.D., Zarrouk, M., Cherif, A. (2000). Sodium chloride effect on lipase activity in germinating seeds. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 28, 899–902.
Bligh, E.G., Dyer, W.J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 37, 911–917.
Bouallègue, A., Souissi, F., Nouairi, I., Souibgui, M., Abbes, Z., Mhadhbi, H. (2017). Salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide pretreatments alleviate salt stress in faba bean (Vicia faba) seeds during germination. Seed Sci. Technol., 45, 675–690.
Bradford, M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem., 72, 248–254.
Corchete, P., Guerra, H. (1986). Effect of NaCl and polyethylene glycol on solute content and glycosidase activities during germination of lentil seeds. Plant Cell Environ., 9, 589–593.
De Lacerda, C.F., Cambraia, J., Oliva, M.A., Ruiz, H.A.T., Arquinio Prisco, J. (2003). Solute accumulation and distribution during shoot and leaf development in two sorghum genotypes under salt stress. Environ. Exp. Bot., 49, 107–120.
Duan, D., Liu, X., Khan, M.A., Gul, B. (2004). Effects of salt and water stress on the seed germination of Chenopodium glaucum L. Pak. J. Bot., 36, 793–800.
Gill, S.S., Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 48, 909–930.
Giorgini, J.P., Sudat, C.N.K. (1990). Ribonucleic acid synthesis in embryonic axes of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. Mundo Novo). Rev. Bras. Bot., 13, 1–9.
Harb, A., Ali, S., Abu Alhaija, A.A. (2017). Possible mechanisms of increasing salt tolerancein lentil plants after pre-exposure to low salt concentration. Russ. J. Plant Physiol., 64, 478–485.
Hernandez, J.A., Jimenez, A., Mullineaux, P., Sevilla, F. (2000). Tolerance of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to long term salt stress is associated with induction of antioxidant defences. Plant Cell. Environ., 23, 853–862.
Hossain, M.A., Bhattacharjee, S., Armin, S.M., Qian, P., Xin, W., Li, H.Y., Burritt, D.J., Fujita, M., Tran, L.S.P. (2015). Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging. Front Plant Sci., 6, 420.
Jaleel, C.A., Kishorekumar, P., Manivannan, A., Sankar, B., Gomathinayagam, M., Panneerselvam, R. (2008). Salt stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Phyllanthus amarus. Acta Bot. Croat., 67, 53–62.
Janda, T., Horvath, E., Szalai, G., Hayat, S., Ahmad, A., Páldi, E. (2007). Role of salicylic acid in the induction of abiotic stress tolerance. In: Salicylic acid: a plant hormone, Hayat, S., Ahmad, A. (eds). Springer Publishers, Dordrecht, 91–150.
Joseph, B., Jini, D., Sujatha, S. (2010). Biological and Physiological perspectives of specificity in abiotic salt stress response from various rice plants. Asian J. Agric. Sci., 2, 99–105.
Khan, M.I.R., Fatma, M., Per, T.S., Anjum, N.A., Khan, N.A. (2015). Salicylic acid-induced abiotic stress tolerance and underlying mechanisms in plants. Front Plant Sci., 6, 462.
Kim, B.G., Waadt, R., Cheong, Y.H., Pandey, G.K., Dominguez-Solis, J.R., Schultke, S., Lee, S.C., Kudla, J., Luan, S. (2007). The calcium sensor CBL10 mediates salt tolerance by regulating ion homeostasis in Arabidopsis. Plant J., 52, 473–484.
Läuchli, A., Grattan, S. (2007). Plant growth and development under salinity stress. In: Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops, Jenks, M.A., Hasegawa, P.M., Jain, S.M. (eds). Springer, Dordrecht, 1–32.
Lee, D.H., Kim, Y.S., Lee, C.B. (2001). The inductive responses of the antioxidant enzymes by salt stress in the rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Plant Physiol., 158, 737–745.
Metcalfe, D., Schmitz, A., Pelka, J.R. (1966). Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal. Chem., 38, 524–535.
Monerri, C., Garcia-Luis, A., Guartlkda, J.L. (1986). Sugar and starch changes in pea cotyledons during germination. Physiol. Plant., 67, 49–54.
Quartacci, M.F., Cosi, E., Navari-Izzo, F. (2001). Lipids and NADPH dependent superoxide production in plasma membrane vesicles from roots of wheat grown under copper deficiency or excess. J. Exp. Bot., 52, 77–84.
Shakirova, F.M., Sakhabutdinova, A.R., Bezrukova, M.V., Fatkhutdinova, R.A., Fatkhutdinova, D.R. (2003). Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic acid and salinity. Plant Sci., 164, 317–322.
Thakur, M., Dev-Sharma, A. (2005). Salt stress and growth phytohormone (ABA) induced changes in germination, sugars and enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds. J. Agric. Soc. Sci., 1, 89–93.
Yemm, E.W., Willis, A.J. (1954). The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone. Biochem. J., 57, 508–514.
Zhao, S.J., Xu, C.C., Zhou, Q., Meng, Q.W. (1994). Improvements of the method for measurement of malondialdehyde in plant tissue. Plant Physiol. Com., 30, 207–210.
Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
The author signs a statement on the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals and the transfer of copyright to the publisher.
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form without the written permission of the editor.