Esmat F. Ali

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia; Horticulture (Floriculture) Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Egypt

Fahmy Hassan

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia; Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt

Sayed S.A. Abdel-Rahman

Horticulture (Floriculture) Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Egypt

Kadambot H.M. Siddique

Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia


Potassium (K) levels are decreasing worldwide in agricultural soils, and K deficiency is becoming a major issue. Study on damask rose response to K application is scarce. Furthermore, despite its importance in the cell division, photosynthesis and protein synthesis, there is a lack of published reports on plant responses to zinc (Zn) application. Further research is required to understand the damask rose's response to both elements. This study investigated the effects of K and Zn foliar application on the vegetative growth, flower yield, and volatile oil content and composition of damask rose. K and Zn nutrition was applied either individually or combined as K2SO4 and ZnSO4 at 0.5 or 1.0%. Foliar application of K2SO4 and ZnSO4 was applied with a manual pump four times in each growing season, the first at the beginning of stem elongation and leaf formation, and then at two-weekly intervals. Results showed that K and/or Zn treatments significantly improved the growth characters, flower yield, relative water content (RWC), stomatal conductance, and essential oil content and composition such as linalool, nerol, citronellol, geraniol, and nonadecane. The chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars (TSS), and protein content also increased, but free amino acid content decreased, suggesting that the distribution of nitrogenous compounds (between amino acids and proteins) and their transformation were influenced by K and Zn supply. Individual applications of K or Zn increased the N, P, K, and Zn contents in damask rose leaves, relative to the control, which increased further with combined applications of K and Zn. Results suggest that foliar application of K and/or Zn could be part of the damask rose fertilization program to provide plants with the optimum level of nutrition for improving the quantity and quality of flowers and essential oil yields.


chlorophyll, flower yield, growth, nutrients, protein, soluble sugars

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Esmat F. Ali 
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia; Horticulture (Floriculture) Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Egypt
Fahmy Hassan 
Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia; Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt
Sayed S.A. Abdel-Rahman 
Horticulture (Floriculture) Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Egypt
Kadambot H.M. Siddique 
Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia



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