EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON FRUIT SPLINTING IN THOMPSON NAVEL ORANGE


Abstract

Fruit splitting is one of main problems extensively observed in citrus-growing area located in the northern parts of Iran. In order to investigate the effect of 2,4-D and GA3 on incidence of fruit splitting in Thompson ‘navel’ orange, an experiment, as a factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, was carried out in two consecutive years of 2016 and 2017. The main factors of this experiment included timing of spray at different growth stages (full bloom, petal fall, and June drop), 2, 4-D (0, 10, 20 mg L–1), and GA3 (0, 50, and 100 mg L–1). In the end of experiment, the characteristics including fruit length, fruit diameter, rind thickness, cellulase and polygalacturonase activities, total soluble solid, percentage of split fruit, and fruit yield were measured. Results showed that using 2, 4-D and GA3 not only decreased the rate of fruit splitting but also increased fruit yield as compared to controls. The highest fruit length, fruit diameter, rind thickness, total soluble solid and the lowest activities of cellulase and polygalacturonase were obtained using 100 mg L–1 GA3 and 20 mg L–1 2, 4 D during the full bloom. In general, the results revealed that using 2, 4-D and GA3 during the full bloom increased fruit yield while reduced fruit splitting and maintained the qualitative characteristics of Thompson ‘navel’ orange.


Keywords

cellulase; polygalacturonase; 2; 4-D; GA3; citrus

Abd El-Rahman, G.F., Mohamad, M., Ensherah, A., Tayh, A.H. (2012). Effect of GA3 and potassium nitrate in different dates on fruit set, yield and splitting Washington Navel orange. Nat. Sci., 10(1), 148–157.
Akhlaghi Amiri, N., Arzani, K., Barzegar, M., Asadi Kangarshahi, A. (2012). Physiology of pre harvest drop in Thompson Navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Acta Hortic., 928, 293–296
Almela, V., Zargoza, S., Primi-Millo, E., Agusti, M. (1994). Hormonal control of splitting in ‘Nova’ mandarin fruit. J. Hort. Sci., 69, 969–973.
Amiri, N.A., Kangarshani, A.A., Arzani, K. (2012). Reducing of citrus losses by spraying of synthetic auxins. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci., 4(22), 1720–1724.
Anthony, M.F., Coggins, C.W. (1999). The efficacy of fruit from of 2,4-D in controlling pre-harvest fruit drop in citrus. Sci. Hortic., 81, 267–277.
Faize, M., Sugiyama, T., Faize, L., Ishii, H. (2003). Polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) from Japanese pear: possible involvement in resistance against scab. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., 63, 319–327.
FAOSTAT. (2016) FAO website. http://faostat.fao.org.
Favaron, F. (2001). Gel detection of Allium porrum polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein reveals a high number of isoforms. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol., 58, 239–245.
Ferrante, A., Mensuali-Sodi, A., Serra, G. (2009). Effect of Thidiazuron and Gibberellic acid on leaf yellowing of cut stock flowers. Cent. Eur. J. Biol., 4(4), 461–468.
Garcia-Luis, A., Duarte, A.M.M., Kanduser, M., Guardiola, J.L. (2001). The anatomy of the fruit in relation to the propensity of citrus species to split. Sci. Hortic., 87(1), 33–52.
García-Luis, A., Duarte, A.M.M., Porras, I., García-Lidon, A., Guardiola, J.L. (1994). Fruit splitting in ‘Nova’ hybrid mandarin in relation to the anatomy of the fruit and fruit set treatments. Sci. Hortic., 57, 215–231.
Ghose, T.K. (1987). Measurement of cellulose activities. IUPAC, 59 (2), 257–268.
Greenberg, J., Kaplan, I., Fainzack, M., Egozi, Y., Giladi, B. (2006). Effects of auxin sprays yield, fruit size, splitting and the incidence of creasing of ‘Nova’ mandarin. Acta Hortic., 727, 249–254.
Guardiola, J.L., García-Luis, A. (1997). Thinning effects on citrus yield and fruit size. Acta Hortic., 463, 463–473.
Guardiola, J.L., García-Luis, A. (2000). Increasing fruit size in citrus, thinning and stimulation of fruit growth. Plant Growth Regul., 31, 121–132.
Guardiola, J.L., Lazaro, E. (1997). The effect of synthetic auxins on fruit growth and anatomic- al development in Satsuma mandarin. Sci. Hortic., 31, 119–130.
Hoffmann, H. (2009). Citrus fruit loss in the home garden. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Garden note, 38.
Hosseinzadeh, A., Mostafaie, A., Motallebi, M., Zamani, M.R. (2007). Bean Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins inhibits polygalacturonase from Fusarium oxysporum and Ascochyta rabiei of chickpea. J. Water Soil., 11(41), 345–356. (In Persian)
Javidsafdari, A. (2015). The effect of gibberellic acid, 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and potassium sulfate on fruit growth and quality of Samarghandi Black Grape. Master of Science (MSc) Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. (In Persian)
Khalil, H.A., Aly, H.S. (2013). Cracking and fruit quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) as affected by pre-harvest sprays of some growth regulators and mineral nutrients. J. Hortic. Sci. Ornam. Plants., 5(2), 71–76.
Khehra, S., Bal, J.S. (2014). Influence of foliar sprays on fruit cracking in lemon. Int. J. Plant Animal Environ. Sci., 4(4), 124–128.
Mupambi, G. (2010). Studies to reduce the size of the Navel-end opening of Navel oranges. MSc Thesis, Univ. Stellenbosch, Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa.
Rabe, E., Van Rensburg, P.J.J. (1996). Gibberellic acid sprays, girdling, flower thinning and potassium applications affect fruit splitting and yield in the ‘Ellendale’ tangor. J. Hortic. Sci., 71(2), 195–203.
Ramezani, S., Shekafandeh, A. (2009). Roles of gibberellic acid and zinc sulphate in increasing size and weight of olive fruit biologically active gibberellins and abscisic acid in fruit of two late-maturing Japanese pear cultivars with contrasting fruit size. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8, 6791–6794.
Reddy, P.A. Prasad, D.M. (2012). Effect of plant growth reguletors on fruit characters and yield of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cv. Ganesh. Int. J. Plant Anim. Environ. Sci., 2(2), 2331–4490.
Sanna Ebeed, E., Mostafa, A.M., Saleh, M.M.S. (2008). Effect of gibberellic acid and male bud removal on yield and fruit quality of banana plants. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 4, 289–292.
Sayed, R.A., Solaiman, B.M., Abo-El Komsan, E.O. (2004). Effect of foliar sprays of some mineral nutrients, GA3 and biostimulant on yield and fruit quality of Valencia orange trees grown in sandy soil. Egypt. J. Appl. Sci., 19(5), 222–238.
Sekse, L., Bjerke, K.L., Vangdal, E. (2005). Fruit cracking in sweet cherries. An integrated approach. In IV International Cherry Symposium, 667, 471–474.
Watanabe, M., Segawa, H., Murakami, M., Sagawal, S., Komori, S. (2008). Effects of plant growth regulators on fruit set and fruit shape of parthenocarpic apple fruits. J. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 77, 350–357.
Yehia, A.T., Hassan, H.S.A. (2005). Effect of some chemical treatments on fruiting of Leconte pears. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 1, 35–42.
Yildirim, A.N., Koyuncu, F. (2013). The effect of gibberellic acid applications on the cracking rate and fruit quality in the ‘Ziraat’ sweet cherry cultivar. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(38), 6307–6311.
Yilmaz, C., Ozguven, A.L., (2005). Hormone physiology of preharvest fruit cracking in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Acta Hortic., 727, 67–73.
Download

Published : 2021-04-27


Habibi, S., Ebadi, A., Ladanmoghadam, A., & Rayatpanah, S. (2021). EFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON FRUIT SPLINTING IN THOMPSON NAVEL ORANGE. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 20(2), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.24326/asphc.2021.2.9

Shahruz Habibi 
Department of Horticulture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran  Iran, Islamic Republic of
Ali Ebadi  aebadi@ut.ac.ir
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran  Iran, Islamic Republic of
Ali Reza Ladanmoghadam 
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar Branch, Semnan, Iran  Iran, Islamic Republic of
Siavash Rayatpanah 
Mazanderan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and education Center, Sari, Iran  Iran, Islamic Republic of




Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.