VARIATION AND RELATIONSHIPS OF AERIAL YIELD, MORPHO-AGRONOMIC TRAITS AND ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION IN DOMESTIC POPULATIONS OF Ziziphora tenuior IN IRAN
Reza MoradiDepartment of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
Mohammad Ali AlizadehResearch Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 13185-116, Tehran, Iran
Eslam Majidi HervanDepartment of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN
Parvin Salehi ShanjaniResearch Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 13185-116, Tehran, Iran
Shahab KhaghaniDepartment of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
Ali Ashraf JafariResearch Institute of Forest and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), P.O. Box 13185-116, Tehran, Iran
The present study was carried out to evaluate aerial yield, agronomic traits, essential oil production, and their relationships in 21 populations of Ziziphora tenuior in Karaj, Iran over two years (2016–2017). The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were collected for GDD (Growth Degree Days), plant height, canopy area, stem number, flower number, aerial fresh yield, aerial dry matter (DM) yield, seed yield, essential oil percentage and oil production. The essential oil compositions were detected in accession 2929 (Tassoj) using GC/MS. Result of combined analysis of variance across two years showed significant differences between years, populations and population x year interaction for all traits (P < 0.01). In comparisons among populations, the population of Avaj and Ijroud with average values of 13.5 and 14.33 g/p had higher aerial dry yield and other agronomic traits followed by Meshkin2 and 3. For seed yield, Ormieh with average values of 3.11 g/p had higher production. For oil content, the populations of Tassoj, Salmas and Sharkord with average values of 1.25 to 1.56% had higher oil content and essential oil production. Result of correlation analysis showed that DM yield was positively correlated with GDD, plant height, canopy area, stem number, flower number. Oil content was negatively correlated with aerial DM yield. The results of PCA analysis showed that the first four components accounted for 50, 20, 12 and 10% of the total variation, respectively. Plant height, canopy area, stem number, flower number and aerial yield in the PCA1, essential oil content and oil production in the PCA2, seed yield in the PCA3 and GDD in PCA4 components were identified as important traits. Using Ward cluster method, the 21 populations were grouped into 3 clusters. In total, 23 compounds were identified in the essential oil from the aerial parts Z. tenuior. The major components in the essential oil were pulegone ranged (47.54 to 65.26%) followed by neo-iso-dihydro carveol, carvacrol, piperitenone, limonene, 1.8-cineole, p-mentha-3,8-dien, alpha-terpinene and terpinen-u-ol. It was concluded that there were wide range of variations for agronomic trait and essential oil in domestic germplasm of Z. tenuior to improved breeding new varieties in Iran.
Keywords:Ziziphora tenuior, aerial part yield, agronomic traits, essential oil
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