POSSIBILITIES TO IMPROVE SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN GARLIC CULTIVATION WITH COVER CROPS AS LIVING MULCHES
Andrzej SałataDepartment of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, University of Live Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Hector Moreno-RamonDepartment of Plant Production, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain
Sara Ibáñez-AsensioDepartment of Plant Production, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain
Halina BuczkowskaDepartment of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, University of Live Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Renata Nurzyńska-WierdakDepartment of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, University of Live Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Agata WitorożecDepartment of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants, University of Live Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Marzena ParzymiesDepartment of Ornamental Plants and Landscape Architecture, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
The cultivation system with cover crops as living mulches is growing in importance in the worldwide agriculture as it combines an economical effect with pro-ecological and soil protecting activities. The plant species tested in the research were not frost resistant: buckwheat, millet, white mustard and berseem clover.
A control were the plots without cover crops. The intercrops were sown in the first decade of August, in autumn a grown biomass was a living mulch, and after being damaged by frost in spring, the mulch was covering ground surface. Winter garlic bulbs were planted in grown biomass of cover plants, in the first decade
of September. In the first decade of November and in the first decade of April, the selected soil parameters were determined in the soil layer of 0–10 cm: actual soil moisture (%), soil bulk density (Mg · m–3), total porosity (%) and water stability of soil aggregates (%). The harvest of garlic was conducted in the first decade
of July. Cover crops mulches had an influence on soil physical properties. In spring, the soil from plots with cover crops mulching characterized with the highest moisture, higher total porosity and soil aggregates stability as well as lower soil bulk density. In comparison to the control cultivation of winter garlic, without
cover crops, the effect of plants used for mulching on marketable yield was not observed. Garlic plants intercropped with the white mustard mulch formed leaves and bulbs of higher weight in comparison to cultivation without cover crops.
Keywords:living mulch, moisture, porosity, density, water stability of soil aggregates
Arshad, M.A., Coen, G.M. (1992). Characterization of soil quality: physical and chemical criteria. Am. J. Altern. Agric., 7, 25–31.
Amézketa, E. (1999). Soil aggregate stability: a review. J. Sustain. Agric., 14, 82–151.
Barajas-Guzmán, M.G., Campo, J., Barradas, V.L. (2006). Soil water, nutrient availability and sapling survival under organic and polyethylene mulch in a seasonally
dry tropical forest. Plant Soil, 287, 347–357.
Baten, M.A., Nahar, B.S., Sarker, S.C., Khan, M.A.H. (1995). Effect of different mulches on the growth and yield of late planted garlic (Allium sativum L.). Pakistan
J. Sci. Ind. Res., 38, 138–141.
Belz, R.G. (2007). Allelopathy in crop/weed interactions – an update. Pest Manag. Sci., 63, 308–326.
Bottenberg, H., Masiunas, J., Eastman, C., Eastburn, D. (1997). The impact of rye cover crops on weeds, insects and diseases in snapbean cropping systems.
J. Sustain. Agric., 9, 131–155.
Bottenberg, H., Masiunas, J., Eastman, C. (1999). Strip tillage reduces yield loss of snapbean planted in rye mulch. Hort. Tech., 9, 235–240.
Brainard, D.C., Bellinder, R.R., Miller, A.J. (2004). Cultivation and inter-seeding for weed control in transplanted cabbage. Weed Technol., 18, 704–710.
Brandsaeter, L.O., Netland, J. (1999). Winter annual legumes for use as cover crops in row crops in Northen Regions. I. Field experiments. Crop Sci., 39, 369–1379.
Bugg, R.L., Waddington, C. (1994). Using cover crops to manage arthropod pests of orchards: a review. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 50, 11–28.
Cline, G.R., Silvernall, A.F. (2001). Residual nitrogen and kill date effect on winter cover crop growth and nitrogen content in a vegetable production system. Hort.
Tech, 19, 23–37.
Doro, A.K. (2012). Effect of irrigation interval on yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) at Ajiwa irrigation site of Katsina State – Nigeria. Jordin, 10, 30–33.
Douglas, B.F., Magdoff, F.R. (1991). An evaluation of nitrogen mineralization indices for organic residues. J. Environ. Qual., 20, 368–372.
Erenstein, O. (2002). Crop residue mulching in tropical and semitropical countries: an evaluation of residue availability and other technological implications. Soil. Till.
Res., 67, 115–133.
Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C., Bailey, B.A. (2005). Role of cover crops in improving soil and row crop productivity. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 36, 2733–2757.
Findeling, A., Ruy, S., Scopel, E. (2003). Modeling the effects of a partial residue mulch on runoff using a physically based approach. J. Hydrol., 275, 49–66.
Hartwig, N.L., Ammon, H.U. (2002). Cover crops and living mulches. Weed Sci., 50, 688–699.
Havlin, J.L., Kissel, D.E., Maddus, L.D., Claassen, M.M., Long, J.H. (1990). Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.,
Islam, M.J., Hossain, A.K.M.M., Khanam, F., Majumder, U.K., Rahman, M.M., Saifur Rahman, M. (2007). Effect of mulching and fertilization on growth and yield
of garlic at Dinajpur in Bangladesh. Asian J. Plant Sci., 6, 98–101.
Jamil, M., Munir, M., Qasim, M., Jalal-Ud-Din Baloh, Rehman, K. (2005). Effect of different types of mulches and their duration on the growth and yield of garlic (Allium
sativum L.). Int. J. Agric., Biol., 7, 588–591.
Ji, S., Unger, P.W. (2001). Soil water accumulation under different precipitation, potential evaporation, and straw mulch conditions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65, 442–448.
Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Gil, J. (2010). Effect of mulching on soil prosperities and ruff under semi-arid conditions southern Spain. Catena, 81, 77–85.
Karaye, A.K., Yakubu, A.I. (2006). Influence of intra–row spacing and mulching on weed growth and bulb yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5,
Konopiński, M., Kęsik, T., Błażewicz-Woźniak, M. (2001). Wpływ mulczowania międzyplonowymi roślinami okrywowymi i uprawy zerowej na kształtowanie
wilgotności i zagęszczenia gleby. Acta Agrophys., 45, 105–116.
Krygier, M. (2011). Influence of intercropping on the yield quantity and quality of celery. Episteme, 12, 337–342 (in Polish).
Leary, J., DeFrank, J. (2000). Living mulches for organic farming system. Hort. Tech., 10, 692–698.
Lehrsch, G.A., Brown, M.J. (1995). Furrow erosion and aggregate stability variation in a Portneuf silt loam. Soil Tech., 7, 327–341.
Mahdieh Najafabadi, M.B., Peyvast, Gh., Hassanpour Asil, M. (2012). Mulching effect on the yield and quality of garlic as second crop in rice field. Inter. J. Plant Prod.,
Marinari, S., Mancinelli, R., Brunetti, P., Campiglia, E. (2015). Soil quality, microbial functions and tomato yield under cover crop mulching in the Mediterranean
environment. Soil Till. Res., 145, 20–28.
Martens, D.A., Frankenberger, W.T. (1992). Modification of infiltration rates in a organic-amended irrigated soil. Agron. J., 84, 707–717.
Faradonbeh, M.M., Mashhadi, A.A., Bakhshandeh, A., Jalal-abadi, A.L. (2013). Evaluation of the effects of different material on quantity and quality yield of garlic
populations (Allium sativum L.). Int. Agric. Crop Sci., 5, 2660–2665.
Mulumba, L.N., Lal, R. (2008). Mulching effects on selected soil physical properties. Soil Till. Res., 98, 106–111.
Nyakatawa, E.Z., Reddy, K.C., Lemunyon, J.L. (2001). Predicting soil erosion in conservation tillage cotton production system using the revised universal soil loss
equation. Soil Till. Res., 57, 213–224.
Pagliai, M., Vignozzi, N., Pellegrini, S. (2004). Soil structure and the effect of management practices. Soil Till. Res., 79, 131–143.
Perfect, E., Kay, B.D., van Loon, W.K.P., Sheard, R.W., Pojasok, T. (1990). Factors influencing soil structural stability within a growing season. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.,
Rasmussen, K.J. (1999). Impact of ploughless soil tillage on yield and quality. A Scandinavian review. Soil Till. Res., 53, 3–14.
Reynolds, W.D., Drury, C.F., Yang, X.M., Tan, C.S. (2008). Optimal soil physical quality inferred through structural regression and parameter interaction. Geoderma,
Sarrantonio, M., Gallandt, E. (2003). The role of cover crops in North American cropping systems. J. Crop Prod., 8, 53–74.
Shin, K.H., Park, J.C., Lee, K.C., Han, K.Y., Lee, Y.S. (1988). Effect of planting dates and bulb size on the growth and yield of cv. Namdo garlic (Alium sativum L.).
Res. Rep. Rural Develop. Admin. Hortic., 30, 41–52.
Tebrügge, F., During, R.A. (1999). Reducing tillage intensity - a review of results from a long-term study in Germany. Soil Till. Res., 53, 15–18.
Tisdall, J.M., Oades, J.M. (1982). Organic matter and waterstable aggregates in soils. J. Soil Sci., 33, 141–163.
Walters, S.A. (2008). Production method and cultivar effects on garlic over-wintering survival, bulb quality, and yield. Hort. Tech., 18, 286–289.
Walters, S.A., Young BG (2008). Utility of winter rye living mulch for weed management in zucchini squash production. Weed Technol., 22, 724–728.
Weil, R., Kremen, A. (2007). Thinking across and beyond disciplines to make cover crops pay. J. Sci. Food Agric., 87, 551–557.
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.