Krystyna Winiarczyk

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin

Ewa Solarska

University of Life Sciences in Lublin

Wojciech Sienkiewicz

University of Life Sciences in Lublin


The aim of the present work was to identify GCL, OYD and LYS and to assess the degree of their distribution in crop and ornamental plants from the genus Allium. Two groups of plants from the genus Allium were used. The first group included 10 botanical species, while the second group was composed of seven commercial A. sativum cultivars and two genotypes. Identification of GCL, OYD and LYS in leaves, inflorescences, and bulbs was performed with the use of the ELISA test. All plants in the first group consisting of botanical species of the genus Allium were free from the viruses studied, whereas in commercial A. sativum cultivars a high prevalence of GCLV, OYDV and LYSV infection reaching 88.2%, 75% and 32.1%, respectively, was reported. Varying severity of infection in the particular plant organs was found.


Allium, garlic varieties, GCLV, OYDV, LYSV, ELISA test

Barg E., Lesemann D.E., Vetten H.J., Green S.K., 1994. Identification, partial characterization and distribution of viruses infecting Allium crops in South and Southeast Asia. Acta Horticult. 358, 251–258.
Barg E., Lesemann D.E., Vetten H.J., Green S.K., 1997. Viruses of Alliums and their distribution in different Allium crops and geographical regions. Acta Horticult. 433, 607–616.
Bos L., 1981. Leek yellow stripe virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of plant viruses, no. 240.
Brunt A.A., Crabtree K., Dallwitz M.J., Gibbs A.J., Watson L., Zurcher E.J., 1996. Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions & Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20th August.
Chen J., Zheng H.Y., Antoniw J.F., Adams M.J., Chen J.P., Lin L., 2004. Detection and classification of Allexiviruses from garlic in China. Archiv. Virol. 149(3), 435–445.
Daniels J., 1999. Occurrence of viruses in garlic in the state of Rio Grande de Sul, Brazil. Fitopatol. Brasil. 24, 91–96.
Diekmann M., 1997. FAO/IPGRI Technical guidelines for the safe movement of germplasm, No. 18. Allium spp. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.
Dovas C.I., Hatziloukas E., Salomon R., Barg E., Shiboleth Y., Katis N.I., 2001a. Comparisons of methods for virus detection in Allium spp. J. Phytopath. 149(11–12), 731–737.
Dovas C.I., Hatziloukas E., Salomon R., Barg E., Shiboleth Y., Katis N.I., 2001b. Incidence of viruses infecting Allium spp. in Greece. J. Phytopath. 107(7), 677–684.
Dovas C.I., Vovlas C., 2003. Viruses infecting Allium spp. in southern Italy. J. Plant Pathol. 85(3), 135.
Etoh T., Simon P.W., 2002. Diversity, fertility and seed production of garlic. In: Allium crop science: Recent advances, H.D. Rabinowitch, L. Currah (eds). New York, CABI Publ., 101–117.
Fajardo T.V.M., Nishijima M., Buso J.A., Torres A.C., Ávila A.C., Resende R.O., 2001. Garlic viral complex: Identyfication of Potyviruses and Carlavirus in central Brazil. Fitopatol. Brasil. 26, 619–626.
Fayad-André M., Dusi A.D., Resende R.O., 2011. Spread of viruses in garlic fields cultivated under different agricultural production systems in Brazil. Tropic. Plant Pathol. 36(6), 341–349.
Hillman B.I., Lawrence D.M., 1995. Carlaviruses. In: Pathogenesis and host specificity in plant diseases: histopathological, biochemical, genetic and molecular bases, Vol. III: Viruses and Viroids, R.P. Singh, U.S. Singhj, K. Kohmoto (eds). Oxford, Pergamon Press, 35–50.
King A.M.Q., Adams M.J., Carstens E.B., Lefkowitz E.J., 2011. Ninth report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
Klukáčková J., Navrátil M., Duchoslav M., 2007. Natural infection of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by viruses in the Czech Republic. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 114(3), 97–100.
Konwicka O., 1973. Die Ursachen der Sterilität von Allium sativum L. Biol. Plant. 15(2), 144–149.
Lot H., Chovelon V., Souche S., Delecolle B., 1998. Effects of onion yellow dwarf and leek yellow stripe viruses on symptomatology and yield loss of three French garlic cultivars. Plant Dis. 82(12), 1381–1385.
Melo-Filho P.A., Resende R.O., Cordeiro C.M.T., Buso J.A., Torres A.C., Dusi A.N., 2006. Viral reinfection affecting bulb production in garlic after seven years of cultivation under field conditions. Europ. J. Plant Pathol. 116(2), 95–101.
Perotto M.C., Cafrune E.E., Conci V.C., 2010. The effect of additional viral infections on garlic plants initially infected with Allexiviruses. Europ. J. Plant Pathol. 126(4), 489–495.
Salomon R., 2002. Virus diseases in garlic and the propagation of virus-free plants. In: Allium crop science: Recent advances, Rabinowitch H.D., Currah L. (ed.). New York, CABI Publ., 311–328.
Shahraeen N., Lesemann D.E, Ghotbi T., 2008. Survey for viruses infecting onion, garlic and leek crop in Iran. EPPO Bulletin 38(1), 131–135.
Shemesh Mayer E., Winiarczyk K., Błaszczyk L., Kosmala A., Rabinowitch H.D., Kamenetsky R., 2013. Male gametogenesis and sterility in garlic (Allium sativum L.): barriers on the way to fertilization and seed production. Planta 237,103–120.
Simon P.W., Jenderek M.M. 2003. Flowering, seed production and the genesis of garlic breeding. Plant Breed. Rev. 32, 211–244.
Sumi S., Tsuneyoshi T., Furutani H., 1993. Novel rod-shaped viruses isolated from garlic, Allium sativum, possessing a unique genome organization. J. Gen. Virol. 74, 1879–1885.
Takaichi M., Yamamoto M., Nagakubo T., Oeda K., 1998. Four garlic viruses identified by reverse transcription – polymerase chain reaction and their regional distribution in Northern Japan. Plant Dis. 82(6), 694–698.
Yamashita K., Sakai J., Hanada K., 1996. Characterization of a new virus from garlic (Allium sativum L.), garlic mite-borne mosaic virus. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan 62(6), 483–489.


Krystyna Winiarczyk 
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin
Ewa Solarska 
University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Wojciech Sienkiewicz 
University of Life Sciences in Lublin



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)