Jolanta Lisiecka

Poznań University of Life Sciences

Krzysztof Sobieralski

Poznań University of Life Sciences

Marek Siwulski

Poznań University of Life Sciences

Agnieszka Jasińska

Poznań University of Life Sciences


Almond mushroom – Agaricus brasiliensis (Wasser et al.) was discovered and popularised as late as the 20th century. However, it has been known for its exceptional
properties in the places of its origin for a long time. Studies have been conducted worldwide for several decades, aiming at the precise determination of these properties and their applicability in medicine. To date it has been proven that almond mushroom extracts exhibit anticancer and antibacterial action, and reduce blood cholesterol level. They are also useful in the treatment of AIDS, diabetes, hypertension and viral hepatitis. Almond mushroom is a very tasty mushroom with an almond aroma. This species is also characterised by high protein content and low fat content. For appropriate growth and development almond mushroom requires relatively high temperatures and air humidity as well as access of light. However, world literature sources contain limited data concerning the cultivation
technology of almond mushroom. In Poland almond mushroom is practically unknown, while its considerable therapeutic properties should be an incentive to initiate more extensive studies.


Agaricus blazei, medicinal mushrooms, cultivation, substrate

Ahn W.S., Kim D.J., Chae G.T., Lee J.M., Bae S.M., Sin J.I., Kim Y.W., Namkoong S.E., Lee I.P., 2004. Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer 14, 589–594.
Amazonas M.A.L., 2005. Champignon do Brasil (Agaricus brasiliensis), Nutrition, Health, Market Demands and Regulatory Concerns. Acta Edulis Fungi 12(Supp.), 111–119.
Andrade M.C.N., Kopytowski Filho J., Minhoni M.T.A., Coutinho L.N., Figueiredo M.B., 2007.
Productivity, biological efficiency, and number of Agaricus blazei mushrooms grown in compost in the presence of Trichoderma sp. and Chaetomium olivacearum contaminants. Braz. J. Microbiol. 38, 243–247.
Angeli J.P.F., Ribeiro L.R., Bellini M.F., Mantovani M.S., 2009. ß-Glucan extracted from the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei prevents the genotoxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Arch. Toxicol. 83, 81–86.
Bellini M.F., Giacomini N., Eira A.F., Ribeiro L.R., Mantovani M.S., 2003. Anticlastogenic effect of aqueous extracts of Agaricus blazei on CHO-k1 cells, studying different developmental phases of the mushroom. Toxicol. In Vitro 17(4), 465–469.
Bernardshaw S., Johnson E., Hetland G., 2005. An extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill administrated orally protects against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Scand. J. Immunol. 62, 393–398.
Bernaś E., Jaworska G., Lisiewska Z., 2006. Edible mushrooms as a source of valuable nutritive constituents. Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 5(1), 5–20.
Camelini C.M., Maraschin M., Mendonca M.M., Zucco C., Ferreira A.G., Tavares L.A., 2005. Structural characterization of ß-glucans of Agaricus brasiliensis in different stages of fruiting body maturity and their use in nutraceutical products. Biotechnol. Lett. 27(17), 1295–1299.
Chang S.T., 2008. Overview of mushroom cultivation and utilization as functional foods. W, Mushrooms as functional foods. Cheung P.C.K. (ed.). J. Wiley & Sons Inc.
Chen A., 2003. A practical Guide to the Cultivation of Agaricus blazei, a Mushroom of Culinary and Biomedical Importance. MushWorld website, http//
Chen L., Shao A.J., 2006. Extract from Agaricus blazei Murill can enhance immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 109, 177–182.
Colauto N.B., Aizono P.M., Carvalho L.R.M., Paccola-Meirelles L.D., Linde G.A., 2008. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation. Semina, Londrina 29(2), 307–312.
Colauto N.B., Silveira A.R., Eira A.F., Linde G.A., 2010. Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield. Biores. Technol. 101, 712–716.
Colauto N.B., Silveira A.R., Eira A.F., Linde G.A., 2011. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on brazilian casing layers. Braz. J. Microbiol. 42, 616–623.
D’Agostini E.C., Mantovani T.R.D., Valle J.S., Paccola-Meirelles L.D., Colauto N.B., Linde G.A., 2011. Low carbon/nitrogen ratio increases laccase production from basidiomycetes in solid substrate cultivation. Sci. Agric. 68(3), 295–300.
Dias E.S., 2010. Mushroom cultivation in Brazil, challenges and potential for growth. Cienc. agrotec. Lavras 34(4), 795–803.
Dias E.S., Abe C., Schwan R.F., 2004. Truths and myths about the mushroom Agaricus blazei. Sci. Agric. 61, 545–549.
Di Piero R.M., Novaes Q.S., Paschali S.F., 2010. Effect of Agaricus basiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 53(2), 269–278.
Ellertsen L.K., Hetland G., 2009. An extract of the medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill can protect against allergy. Clin. Mol. Allergy 7, 6. DOI, 10.1186/1476-7961-7-6
Endo M., Beppu H., Akiyama H., Wakamatsu K., Ito S., Kawamoto Y., Shimpo K., Sumiya T., Koike T., Matsui T., 2010. Agaritine purified from Agaricus blazei Murrill exerts anti-tumor activity against leukemic cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1800, 669–673.
Escouto L.F.S., Colauto N.B., Linde G.A., Aizono P.M., Carvalho L.R.M., Eira A.F., 2005. Acceptability of the sensory characteristics of the brazilian mushroom A. brasiliensis. Braz. J. Food Technol. 8(4), 321–325.
Firenzuoli F., Gori L., Lombardo G., 2008. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill, Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems. Evidence-Based Comp. Alter. Med. 5(1), 3–15.
Fujimiya Y., Suzuki Y., Oshiman K., Kobori H., Moriguchi K., Nakashima H., Matumoto Y., Takahara S., Ebina T., Katakura R., 1998. Selective tumorcidal effect of solulable proteoglucan extracted from the basidiomycete, Agaricus blazei Murrill, mediated via natural killer cell activation and apoptosis. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 46, 147–159.
Gern R.M.M., Libardi Junior N., Patricio G.N., Wisbeck E., Chaves M.B., Furlan S.A., 2010. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 53(4), 939–944.
Gerrits J.P.G., 1998. Nutrition and compost. In: The cultivation of mushrooms. L.J.L.D. van Griensven (red.). Mushroom Experimental Station, Horst. Netherlands, 29–38.
Gonzaga M.L.C., Bezerra D.P., Alves A.P.N.N., Alencar N.M.N., Mesquita R.O., Lima M.W., Soares S.A., Pessoa C., Moraes M.O., Costa-Lotufo L.V., 2009. In vivo growth-inhibition of Sarcoma 180 by an α-(1→4)-glucan–ß-(1→6)-glucan-protein complex polysaccharide obtained from Agaricus blazei Murill. J. Nat. Med. 63, 32–40.
Gonzaga M.L.C., Ricardo N.M.P.S., Heatley F., Soares S.A., 2005. Isolation and characterization of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murill. Carbohydr. Polym. 60, 43–49.
Gonzalez Matute R., Figlas D., Curvetto N., 2011. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27, 1331–1339.
Gyorfi J., 2007. Study on the mushroom species Agaricus blazei (Murrill). Int. J. Hort. Sci. 4, 45–48.
Gyorfi J., Goesel A., Vetter J., 2010. Mineral composition of different strains of edible medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Peck. J. Med. Food 13(6), 1510–1514.
Horm V., Ohga S., 2008. Potential of compost with some added supplementary materials on the development of Agaricus blazei Murill. J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 53(2), 417–422.
Huang N.L., 1997. Brazilian mushroom (Gee Song Rong) in Huang (ed.) Cultivation of eighteen rare and precious gourmet mushrooms. Chinese Agricultural Press, Beijng, China, 95–101.
Huang S.J., Mau J.L., 2006. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from Agaricus blazei with various doses of γ-irradiation. LWT 39, 707–716.
Hyde K.D., Bahkali A.H., Moslem M.A., 2010. Fungi – an unusual source for cosmetics. Fungal Diversity 43(1), 1–9.
Iwade I., Mizuno T., 1997. Cultivation of Kawariharatake (Agaricus blazei Murill). Food Rev. Int. 13(3), 338–390.
Kawagishi H., Inagaki R., Kanao T., Mizuno T., Shimura K., Ito H., Hagiwara T., Nakamura T., 1989. Fractionation and antitumor activity of the water – insoluble residue of Agaricus blazei fruiting bodies. Carbohydr. Res. 186, 267–273.
Kerrigan R.W., 2005. Agaricus subrufescens, a cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom, and its synonyms. Mycologia 97(1), 12–24.
Kim Y.W., Kim K.H., Choi H.J., Lee D.S., 2005. Anti-diabetic activity of β-glucans and their enzymatically hydrolyzed oligosaccharides from Agaricus blazei. Biotechnol. Lett. 27(77), 483–487.
Kimura Y., Kido T., Takaku T., Sumiyoshi M., Baba K., 2004. Isolation of an anti-angiogenic substances from Agaricus blazei Murrill, its antitumor and antimetastatic actions. Cancer Sci. 95, 758–764.
Kopytowski Filho J., Minhoni M.T.A., Andrade M.C.N., Zied D., 2008. Effect of compost supplementation (soybean meal and Champfood) at different phases (spawning and before casing) on productivity of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann (A. brasiliensis). Mushr. Sci. 17, 260–270.
Kopytowski Filho J., Minhoni M.T.A., Rodriguez Estrada A., 2006. Agaricus blazei, „The Almond Portobello”, cultivation and commercialization. Mushr. News 54, 22–28.
Largeteau M.L., Llarena-Hernandez R.C., Regnault-Roger C., Savoie J.M., 2011. The medicinal Agaricus mushroom cultivated in Brazil, biology, cultivation and non-medicinal valorisation. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. DOI 10.1007/s00253-011-3630-7
Lima C.U.J.O., Cordova C.O.A., Nobrega O.T., Funghetto S.S., Karnikowski M.G.O., 2011. Does the Agaricus blazei Murill Mushroom Have Properties that Affect the Immune System? An Integrative Review. J. Med. Food 14(1–2), 2–8.
Lindequist U., Niedermayer T.H.J., Jülich W.D., 2005. The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. eCAM 2, 285–299.
Liu Y., Fukuwatari Y., Okumura K., Takeda K., Ishibashi K., Furukawa M., Ohno N., Mori K., Gao M., Motoi M., 2008. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and Human Volunteers. eCAM 5(2), 205–219.
Mantovani T.R.D., Linde G.A., Colauto N.B., 2007. Effect of addition of nitrogen sources to cassava fiber and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios on Agaricus brasiliensis growth. Can. J. Microbiol. 53, 139–143.
Marcus J.B., 2005. Culinary applications of umami. Food Technol. 59, 24–30.
Mattila P., Salo-Vaanenen P., Konko K., Aro H., Jalava T., 2002. Basic composition and amino acid contents of mushroom cultivated in Finland. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 6419–6422.
Mattila P., Suonpaa K., Piironen V., 2000. Functional Properties of Edible Fungi. Nutrition 16(7/8), 694–696.
Mendonca M., Kasuya M.C., Cadorin A., Vieira A.J., 2005. Agaricus blazei cultivation for a living in Brazil. Mushroom grower’s handbook 2, Shiitake cultivation, Seul Korea, MushWorld, 247–257.
Menoli R.C.R.N., Mantovani M.S., Ribeiro L.R., Speit G., Jordao B.Q., 2001. Antimutagenic effects of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill extracts on V79 cells. Mutation Res. 496, 5–13.
Mizuno T., 1995. Agaricus blazei Murrill medicinal and dietary effects. Food Rev. Int. 11, 167–172.
Mizuno T., 2000. Cultivation of the Medicinal Mushroom Royal Sun Agaricus – Agaricus blazei Murrill (Agaricomycetideae). Int. J. Med. Mushr. 2, 215–220.
Mizuno T., 2002. Medicinal properties and clinical effects of culinary mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (Agaricomycetideae). Int. J. Med. Mushr. 4, 299–312.
Mizuno T., 2010. In Vitro and In Vivo Immunomodulatory and Anti-allergic Effects of Agaricus blazei Murill. W, Dietary Components and Immune Function. R.R. Watson et al. (red.). Springer Science + Business Media, 387–394.
Mizuno T., Minato K., Ito H., Terai H., Tsuchida H., 1999. Anti-tumor polysaccharide from the mycelium of liquid – cultured Agaricus blazei Murril. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 47, 707–714.
Mourao F., Linde G.A., Messa V., Cunha Jr., P.L., Silva A.V., Eira A.F., Colauto N.B., 2009. Antineoplastic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases. Braz. J. Microbiol. 40(4), 901–905.
Mourao F., Umeo S.H., Takemura O.S., Linde G.A., Colauto N.B., 2011. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases. Braz. J. Microbiol. 42, 197–202.
Neves M.A., Kasuya M.C.M., Araujo E., Leite C.L., Camelini C.M., Ribas L.C.C., Mendonca M.M., 2005. Physiological and genetic variability of commercial isolates of culinary-medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (Agaricomycetidae) cultivated in Brazil. Int. J. Med. Mushr. 7, 553–563.
Novaes M.R.C.G., Novaes L.C.G., Taveira V.C., 2007. Natural Products from Agaricales Medicinal Mushrooms, Biology, Nutritional Properties, and Pharmacological Effects on Cancer. Revista Brasilera de Cancerologia 53(4), 411–420.
Oei P., 2003. Mushroom cultivation 3rd edition. Appropriate technology for mushroom growers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands, 429 pp.
Ohno S., Sumiyoshi Y., Hashine K., Shirato A., Kyo S., Inoue M., 2011. Phase I Clinical Study of the Dietary Supplement, Agaricus blazei Murill, in Cancer Patients in Remission. Evidence-Based Comp. Alter. Med. DOI, 10.1155/2011/192381
Oliveira O.M.M.F., Vellosa J.C.R., Fernandes A.S., Buffa-Filho W., Hakime-Silva R.A., Furlan M., Brunetti I.L., 2007. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus blazei. Fitoterapia 78, 263–264.
Park J.S., 2001. Characteristics and Cultivation Technology of Agaricus blazei. MushWorld website, http//
Pokhrel C.P., Ohga S., 2007. Cattle bedding waste used as a substrate in the cultivation of Agaricus blazei Murill. J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 52(2), 295–298.
Polak J., Jarosz-Wilkołazka A., 2007. Reakcje katalizowane przez lakazę – mechanizm i zastosowanie w biotechnologii. Biotechnologia 4(79), 82–94.
Ribas L.C.C., Mendonca M.M., Camelini C.M., Soares C.H.L., 2009. Use of spent mushroom substrates from Agaricus subrufescens (syn. A. Blazei A., brasiliensis) and lentinula edodes productions in the enrichment of a soil-based potting media for lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivation, Growth promotion and soil bioremediation. Bioresource Technol. 100(20), 4750–4757.
Silva C.F., Azevedo R.S., Braga C., Silva R., Dias E.S., Schwał R.F., 2009. Microbal diversity in a bagasse-based kompost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis. Braz. J. Microbiol. 40, 590–600.
Siqueira F.G., Dias E.S., Silva R., Martos E.T., Rinker D.L., 2009. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann using different soils as source of casing materials. Sci. Agric. 66(6), 827–830.
Siqueira F.G., Martos E.T., Silva E.G., Silva R., Dias E.S., 2011. Biological efficiency of Agaricus brasiliensis cultivated in compost with nitrogen concentrations. Hortic. Bras. 29, 157–161.
Siwulski M., Sobieralski K., 2004. Uprawa grzybów jadalnych i leczniczych w warunkach naturalnych. Kurpisz, Poznań. 158 pp.
Smiderle F.R., Ruthes A.C., Arkel J., Chanput W., Iacomini M., Wichers H.J., Van Griensven L.J.L.D., 2011. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells. BMC Comp. Alter. Med. 11, 58.
Soares A.S., Souza G.G.M., Daniel F.M., Ferrari G.P., Costa S.M.G., Peralta R.M., 2009. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricus blazei Murril) in two stages of maturity. Food Chem. 112(4), 775–781.
Sorimachi K., Ikehara Y., Maezato G., Okubo A., Yamazaki S., Akimoto K., Niwa A., 2001. Inhibition by Agaricus blazei Murill Fractions of Cytopathic Effect Induced by Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) Virus on VERO Cells in Vitro. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 65(7), 1645–1657.
Souza-Paccola E.A., Bomfeti C.A., Fávaro, L.C.L., Fonseca I.C.B., Paccola-Meirelles L.D., 2004. Antimutagenic actions of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Aspergillus nidulans conidia. Braz. J. Microbiol. 35, 311–315.
Stamets P., 2000. Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA., 574 pp.
Stijve T., Amazonas M.A.L., 2002. Agaricus blazei Murrill, a New Gourmet and Medicinal Mushroom from Brazil. Australasian Mycologist 21(1), 29–33.
Stijve T., Amazonas M.A.L., Giller V., 2002. Flavor and taste components of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinem. – a new gourmet and medicinal mushroom. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau. 98(12), 448–453.
Stijve T., Amazonas M.A.L., Giller V., 2004. Characterisation of flavour and taste compounds in Agaricus blazei Murrill sensu Heinem., the cultivated almond mushroom. Australasian Mycologist 22(3), 116–122.
Takaku T., Kimura Y., Okuda H., 2001. Isolation of an antitumor compound from Agaricus blazei Murril and mechanism of action. J. Nutr. 5, 1409–1413.
Takeda K., Okumura K., 2004. CAM and NK cells. eCAM 1(1), 17–27.
Tsai S.Y., Tsai H.L., Mau J.L., 2008. Non-volatile taste components of Agaricus blazei, Agrocybe cylindracea and Boletus edulis. Food Chem. 107(3), 977–983.
Ueguchi Y., Matsunami K., Otsuka H., Kondo K., 2011. Constituents of cultivated Agaricus blazei. J. Nat. Med. 65, 307–312.
Wang Q., Li B.B., Li H., Han J.R., 2010. Yield, dry matter and polysaccharides content of the mushroom Agaricus blazei produced on asparagus straw substrate. Sci. Hort. 125, 16–18.
Wasser S.P., 2011. Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89, 1323–1332.
Wasser S.P., Didukh M.Y., Amazonas M.A.L., Nevo E., Stamets P., Eira A.F., 2002. Is a widely cultivated culinary-medicinal royal sun Agaricus (the Himematsutake Mushroom) indeed Agaricus blazei Murrill? Int. J. Med. Mushr. 4, 267–290.
Wasser S.P., Nevo E., Sokolov D., Reshetnikow S., Timor-Tismenetsky T., 2000. Dietary supplements from medicinal mushrooms, diversity of types and variety of regulations. Int. J. Med. Mushr. 2, 1–21.
Watanabe T., Yamada T., Tanaka H., Jiang S., Mazumder T.K., Nagai S., Tsuji K., 2002. Antihypertensive effect of y-aminobutyric acid-enriched Agaricus blazei on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi 49, 166– 173.
Yoshimura K., Ueda N., Ichioka K., Matusi Y., Terai A., Arai Y., 2005. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with urologic cancer, a prospective study at a single Japanese institution. Support Care Cancer 13, 685–690.
Yuminamochi E., Koike T., Takeda K., Horiuchi I., Okumura K., 2007. Interleukin-12 and interferon-γ-mediated natura killer cell activation by Agaricus blazei Murill. Immunology 121, 197–206.
Zhou Q., Tang X., Huang Z., Song P., Zhou J., 2010. Novel method for cultivating Agaricus blazei. Acta Edulis Fungi 17, 29–42.
Zied D.C., Minhoni M.T.A., Kopytowski Filho J., Andrade M.C.N., 2010. Production of Agaricus blazei ss. Heinemann (A. brasiliensis) on different casing layers and its environments. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 26, 1857–1863.
Zied D.C., Minhoni M.T.A., Kopytowski Filho J., Barbosa L., Andrade M.C.N., 2011. Medicinal mushroom growth as affected by non-axenic casing soil. Pedosphere 21(2), 146–153.


Jolanta Lisiecka 
Poznań University of Life Sciences
Krzysztof Sobieralski 
Poznań University of Life Sciences
Marek Siwulski 
Poznań University of Life Sciences
Agnieszka Jasińska 
Poznań University of Life Sciences



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>