Matam Pradeep

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore – 570 020, KA, India

Nandini Prasad Shetty

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore – 570 020, KA, India

Parvatam Giridhar

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore – 570 020, KA, India


Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., is a plant species that is endemic to southern parts of India. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of habitat heterogeneity on total phenolics, flavonoids, flavor compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde (2H4MB) and antioxidant potential of tubers. The flavor metabolite 2H4MB was quantified by HPLC using isocratic solvent system (methanol : acetonitrile : water : acetic acid 47 : 10 : 42 : 1) that indicates obvious difference in 2H4MB content of tubers with a maximum of 96.4 ±2.6 and 92.6 ±1.2 mg 100 g–1 dry weight basis (DW) in samples from B.R. Hills and Mysore area of Karnataka, followed by samples from Tirumalai Hills and Kurnool from Andhra Pradesh (89.02 ±0.9 mg 100 g–1 DW), Tamil Nadu (81.6 ±2.4 mg 100 g–1 DW) and Kerala (80.18 ±1.1 mg 100 g–1 DW) of tubers. There was variation in total phenolics, total flavonoids and 2H4MB content of root samples collected from different habitats. Also significant variation in free radical scavenging potential of methanol root extracts was noticed, which is directly proportional to the phenolics, and flavonoids content. Overall, there was 10–16% difference in content of 2H4MB in D. hamiltonii tubers that were collected from different natural habitats, and this habitat heterogeneity has to be considered vital, while using such tubers for edible purposes and food formulations.


habitat heterogeneity, root tubers, dichloromethane, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde

Carocho, M., Filomena Barreiro, M.F., Morales, P., Ferreira, I.C.F.R. (2014). Adding Molecules to Food, Pros and Cons: A Review on Synthetic and Natural Food Additives. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., 13, 377–399.

Covelo, R., Gallardo, A. (2001). Temporal variation in total leaf phenolics concentration of Quercus robur L. in forested and harvested stands in northwestern Spain. Can. J. Bot., 79, 1262–1269.

EAF – Everything Added to Food. (2015). Category with Doc no. 3680 and CAS RN 853947-361. Available: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn /fcnNavigation.cfm? filter=853947-36 1&sort Column =&rpt=eafusListing [date of access: 3.04.2017].

Giridhar, P., Rajasekaran, T., Nagarajan, S., Ravishankar, G.A. (2004). Production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde in roots of tissue culture raised and acclimatized plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn, an endangered shrub endemic to Southern India and evaluation of its performance vis-à-vis plants from natural habitat. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 42, 106–110.

Giridhar, P., Rajasekaran, T., Ravishankar, G.A. (2005). Improvement of growth and root specific flavour compound 2-hydrixy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde of micropropagated plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., under Triacontanol treatment. Sci. Hortic., 106, 228–236.

Gururaj, H.B., Giridhar, P., Ravishankar, G.A. (2004). Efficient clonal propagation method for Decalepis hamiltonii, an endangered shrub under the influence of phloroglucinol. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 42, 424–428.

Hamouz, K., Lachman, J., Dvořák, P., Jůzl, M., Pivec, V. (2006). The effect of site conditions, variety and fertilization on the content of polyphenols in potato tubers. Plant Soil Env., 52, 407–412.

Harish, R., Divakar, S., Srivastava, A., Shivanandappa, T. (2005). Isolation of antioxidant compounds from the methanolic extract of the roots of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53, 7709–7714.

Holt, A.R., Warren, P.H., Gaston, K.J. (2004). The importance of habitat heterogeneity, biotic interactions and dispersal in abundance-occupancy relationships. J. Anim. Ecol., 73, 841–851.

Hutchings, M.J., John, E.L. (2004). The Effects of Environmental Heterogeneity on Root Growth and Root/Shoot Partitioning. Ann. Bot., 94, 1–8.

Jacob, K.C. (1937). An unrecorded economic product Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., Family Asclepiadaceae. Madras Agric. J., 2, 176–180.

Kubra Karakoca, K., Asan-Ozusaglam, M., Cakmak, Y.S., Teksen, M. (2015). Phenolic compounds, Biological and Antioxidant Activities of Onobrychis armena Boiss. & Huet Flower and Root Extracts. Chiang Mai J. Sci., 42, 376–392.

Kumar, S.S., Manoj, P., Giridhar, P. (2015). Nutrition facts and functional attributes of foliage of Basella spp. LWT – F. Sci. Tech., 64, 468–474.

Marler, T.A. (2007). Habit heterogeneity of Cycas micronesica seed chemistry in Guam’s forest. Micronesica, 39, 297–314.

Nataraj, H.N., Murthy, R.L.N., Ramachandra Setty, S. (2009). In vitro Quantification of Flavonoids and Phenolic content of – Suran. Int. J. Chem. Res., 4(1), 1063–1067.

Pillai, P., Ramaswamy, K. (2012). Effect of naturally occurring antimicrobials and chemical preservatives on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus. J. Food Sci. Technol., 49, 228–33.

Pradeep, M., Giridhar, P., Nandini Prasad Shetty. (2017). Enhanced production of vanillin flavour metabolites by precursor feeding in cell suspension cultures of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., in shake flask culture. 3 Biotech., 7, 376.

Pradeep, M., Kiran, K., Giridhar, P. (2016). A Biotechnological Perspective Towards Improvement of Decalepis hamiltonii: Potential Applications of Its Tubers and Bioactive Compounds of Nutraceuticals for Value Addition. In: Biotechnological strategies for the conservation of medicinal and ornamental climbers, Shahzad, A., Sharma, S., Siddiqui, S.A. (eds.). Springer Int. Pub., Cham–Heidelberg–New York–Dordrecht–London, 217–238.

Ragini, V., Bharathi, K., Prasad, K.V.S.R.G., Sumalatha, G. (2010). Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Decalepis hamiltonii Wright & Arn. Int. J. Innov. Pharm. Res., 1, 1–10.

Rice-Evans, C., Miller, N., Paganga, G. (1996). Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic. Biol., 20, 933–956.

Sen, S., Chakraborty, R., Sridhar, C., Reddy, Y.S.R., De, B. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants, diseases and phytomedicines: current status and future prospect. Int. J. Pharma. Sci. Rev. Res., 3(1), 91–100.

Sharma, S., Shahzad, A. (2012). Encapsulation technology for short-term storage and conservation of a woody climber, Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 111, 191–198.

Shefali, K., Vandana, P., Akhilesh, S., Sandhya, S. (2009). Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. In: Recent advances in prospects and potential of medicinal plants, Dwivedi, S.N. (ed.). Gayatri Publications, Delhi, 156–161.

Sirdevi, V., Giridhar, P. (2015). Variations in Diterpenes-Cafestol and Kahweol Content in beans of Robusta Coffee grown at Different Altitudes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 1–6.

Solomon Raju, A.J., Venkata Ramana, K. (2011). Traditional preparation of health drink Nannari Sharbat from the root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. Ind. J. Nat. Prod. Res., 2, 121–124.

Swapna, G., Srinivasa Rao, D. (2013). Phytochemical Analysis of Endangered Medicinal Plant Decalepis hamiltonii. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Biomed. Sci., 4, 63–65.

Thornell, K., Vedavaty, S., Milhoo, D.A., Crouch, N.R. (2000). Parallel usage pattern of African and Indian Periplocoids corroborate phenolic root chemistry. South Afr. Ethnobot., 2, 17–22.

Tomsone, L., Kruma, Z., Galoburda, R. (2012). Comparison of different solvents and extraction methods for isolation of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots (Armoracia rusticana). Int. J. Biol. Biomol. Agric. Food Biotechnol. Eng., 6(4), 236–241.

Vedavathy, S. (2004). Decalepis hamiltonii Wight and Arn. – An endangered source of indigenous health drink. Nat. Prod. Rad., 3, 22–23.

Wealth of India. (2003). A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. CSIR, New Delhi. 3, 24.

Yamaguchi, T., Takamura, H., Matoba, T., Terao, J. (1998). HPLC method for evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62, 1201–1204.

Zlatic, M.N., Stankovik, M.S. (2017). Variability of secondary metabolites of the species of Cichorium intybus L. from different habitats. Plants 6, 38. DOI: 10.3390/plants6030038



Matam Pradeep 
Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore – 570 020, KA, India
Nandini Prasad Shetty 
Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore – 570 020, KA, India
Parvatam Giridhar 
Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore – 570 020, KA, India



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.