Determination of phytochemicals of Turkish fig genetic resources

İlknur Kösoğlu

Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, İzmir, Türkiye

Ramazan Konak

Fig Research Institute, Aydın, Türkiye

Çiğdem Yamaner

Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Isparta, Türkiye

Nilgün Tan

Fig Research Institute, Aydın, Türkiye


The rise of consumer interest in functional food make it necessary to determine the total phenolic (TP) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of the fig accessions in Türkiye. In this study, 236 fig accessions were analayzed for various metabolites such as phenolic compounds, total phenols (TP), total anthocyanins (TA), total flavonoids (TF), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The results showed that routine (44.34 ±8.78 mg kg–1 FW) was dominant phenolic compound in the fruits of ‘Bursa Siyahı’ variety, followed by epicatechin (27.76 ±1.12 mg kg–1 FW), syringic acid (4.57 ±2.20 mg kg–1 FW) and chlorogenic acid (4.39 ±0.20 mg kg–1 FW). Among the samples analysed, it was determined that the accession with the highest TPC (189.0 mg GAE 100 g–1 FW) and AOA (688.6 µmol troloks 100 g–1 FW) was ‘Kepek’ (TR 532). Also, it was determined that the accession with the highest anthocyanin content (512.3 mg cyn-3-glu kg–1 FW) was ‘Siyah’ (TR 230). ‘Kepek’ (TR532), ‘Siyah’ (TR 230), ‘Divrekkara’ (TR1101) and ‘Siyah Kış’ (TR1088) are generally not very cultivated accessions. These accessions have an important potential due to the continuous rise of interest in food with high AOA all around the world.


antioxidant activity, Ficus carica, HPLC, ‘Kepek’ variety, total anthocyanin, total phenolic continent

Arcan, I., Yemenicioglu, A. (2009). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of fresh and dry nuts with or without the seed coat. J. Food Compos. Anal., 22, 184–188. DOI:

Ajmal, M., Arshad, M.U., Saeed, F., Ahmed, T., Khan, A.U., Bader-ul-Ain, H., Suleria, H.A.R. (2016). Exploring the nutritional characteristics of different parts of fig in relation to hypoglycemic potential. Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci., 14, 115–122.

Bachir Bey, M., Louaileche, H. (2015). A comparative study of phytochemical profile and in vitro antioxidant activities of dark and light dried fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties. Int. J. Phytopharm., 4, 41–48. DOI:

Bachir Bey, M., Louaileche, H., Zemouri, S. (2013). Optimization of phenolic compound recov-ery and antioxidant of light and dark fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 22, 1613–1619. DOI:

Beccaro, G., Mellano, M.G., Botta, R., Chiabrando, V., Bounous, G. (2006). Phenolic and antho-cyanin content and antioxidant activity in fruits of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and of highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) cultivars in north western Italy. Acta Hortic., 715, 553–558. DOI:

Caro, A.D., Piga, A. (2007). Polyphenol composition of peel and pulp of two Italian fresh fig fruits cultivars (Ficus carica L.). Eur. Food Res. Technol., 226, 715–719. DOI:

Chang, S.K., Alasalvar, C., Shahidi, F. (2016). Review of dried fruits: Phytochemicals, antioxi-dant efficacies, and health benefits. J. Funct. Foods., 21, 113–132. DOI:

Cheng, G.W., Bren, P.J. (1991). Activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and concentra-tions of anthocyanins and phenolics in developing strawberry fruit. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 116, 865–869. DOI:

Crisosto, C.H., Ferguson, L., Bremer, V. (2011). Fig (Ficus carica L.). In: Posharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Yahia, E.E. (ed.). Elsevier, Cambridge, UK, 134–158. DOI:

Çalışkan, O., Polat, A.A. (2011). Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of selected fig (Ficus carica L.) accessions from the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Sci. Hortic., 128, 473–478. DOI:

Çalışkan, O., Polat, A.A. (2012). Bazı İncir Çeşitlerinin Fitokimyasal ve Antioksidan Özellikle-rinin Belirlenmesi. Ege Üniv. Ziraat Fak. Derg., 49(2), 201–207.

Ercisli, S., Tosun, M., Karlidag, H., Dzubur, A., Hadziabulic, S., Aliman, Y. (2012). Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from northeastern Turkey. Plant Foods Hum Nutr., 67, 271–276. DOI:

Hardy, G. (2000). Nutraceuticals and functional foods: Introduction and meaning. Nutrition, 16, 688–697. DOI:

Harzallah, A., Bhouri, A.M., Amri, Z., Soltana, H., Hammami, M. (2016). Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of different fruit parts juices of three figs varieties grown in Tunisia. Ind. Crops Prod., 83, 255–267. DOI:

Kamiloglu, S., Capanoglu, E. (2013). Investigating the in vitro bioaccessibility of polyphenols in fresh and sun-dried figs (Ficus carica L.). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 48, 2621–2629. DOI:

Konak, R., Kösoğlu, İ., Yemenicioğlu, A. (2015). Effects of Different Drying Methods on Phe-nolic Content, Antioxidant Capacity and General Characteristics of Selected Dark Colored Turkish Fig Cultivars. In: Vth International Symposium on Fig, Napoli, Italy. Acta Hortic., 1173, 335–340. DOI:

Maghsoudlou, E., Kenari, R.E., Amiri, Z.R. (2017). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of fig (Fi-cus carica L.) pulp and skin extract and its application enhancing stability of canola oil. J. Food Process. Preserv., 41, 1–11. DOI:

Nakilcioglu, E., Hışıl, Y. (2013). Research on the phenolic compounds in Sarılop (Ficus carica L.) fig variety. Gıda, 38(5), 267–274.

Ouchemoukh, S., Hachoud, S., Boudraham, H., Mokrani, A., Louaileche, H. (2012). Antioxidant activities of some dried fruits consumed in Algeria. Food Sci. Technol., 49, 329–332. DOI:

Pereira, C., López-Corrales, M., Joaquín Serradill, M., Villalobos, M.D., Ruiz-Moyano, S., Martin, A. (2017). Influence of ripening stage on bioactive compounds and antioxidant ac-tivity in nine fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties grown in extremadura, Spain. J. Food Compos. Anal., 64, 203–212. DOI:

Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Antioxi-dant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolourization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 26, 1231–1237. DOI:

Roberfroid, M.B. (2000). A European consensus of scientific concepts of functional foods. Nutrition, 16, 689–691. DOI:

Shahidi, F., Ambigaipalan, P. (2015). Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spic-es: Antioxidant activity and health effects – A review. J. Funct. Foods., 18, 820–897. DOI:

Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.J.A. (1965). Colourimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 16, 144–158.

Solomon, A., Golubowicz, S., Yablowicz, Z., Grossman, S., Bergman, M., Gottlieb, H.E., Alt-man, A., Kerem, Z., Flaishman, M.A. (2006). Antioxidant activities and anthocyanin con-tent of fresh fruits of common fig (Ficus carica L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 7717–7723. DOI:

Veberic, R., Colaric, M., Stampar, F. (2008). Phenolic acids and flavonoids of fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) in the northern Mediterranean region. Food Chem., 106, 153–157. DOI:

Viuda-Martos, M., Barber, X., Perez-Alvarez, J.A., Fernandez-Lopez, J. (2015). Assessment of chemical, physico-chemical, techno-functional and antioxidant properties of fig (Ficus carica L.) powder co-products. Ind. Crops Prod., 69, 472–479. DOI:

Zhang, X., Wang, X., Liu, L., Wang, W., Liu, Y., Deng, Q., Zhang, H., Wang, X., Xia, H. (2020). Evaluation of the comparative morphological and quality in fig (Sichuan, China) with different colors under different ripening stages. Sci. Hortic., 265, 109256. DOI:



İlknur Kösoğlu 
Aegean Agricultural Research Institute, İzmir, Türkiye
Ramazan Konak 
Fig Research Institute, Aydın, Türkiye
Çiğdem Yamaner 
Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Isparta, Türkiye
Nilgün Tan 
Fig Research Institute, Aydın, Türkiye


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.