Mutual effects of humic acid content and nitrogen sources for vegetative development and flowering of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.)

Nurdilek Gulmezoglu

Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 26160 Eskisehir, Turkiye

Cigdem Yücel

Republic of Turkiye Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Eskisehir Directorate of Provincial Agriculture and Forestry, 26160 Eskisehir, Turkiye

Sibel Yigiter-Saricam

Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 26160 Eskisehir, Turkiye


Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), a garden plant cherished for its unique and colorful flowers, is widely used in bouquets and wreaths as a cut flower. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, AS; ammonium nitrate, AN; and urea) and humic acids from lignite sources (TKI-Humas and HUM-Zn) on the growth and flower production of snapdragon that are grown in pots under controlled conditions. It has been observed that plants started to flower during applications of HUM-Zn with AN and urea, whereas they remained at the vegetative stage during the application of HUM-Zn with AS. Furthermore, it has been determined that the two humic acid sources with AS usage prolonged the vegetative development and did not induce flowering of plants. Simultaneous application of humic acid and nitrogen sources has caused an increase in the leaf width, peduncle diameter, floret weight, chlorophyll content, and biomass of the snapdragon. Results show that the application of HUM-Zn with AN and urea has been effective on the plant’s vegetative organs, flowering, and dry weight. It indicated that HUM-Zn contains zinc, which is effective in flowering and biomass development. In conclusion, it was concluded that the simultaneous application of humic acid with AN or urea rapidly affected the flowering process of snapdragon.


Antirrhinum majus L., snapdragon, humic acid, nitrogen, zinc, urea

Abdulhadi, M.D., Saeed, A.K.J.M., Haraz, M.T. (2022). Effect of chelated calcium and iron foliar spraying on growth and flowering of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.). Int. J. Health Sci. Res. 6(S3), 10329–10336. DOI:

Adesemoye, A.O, Obini, M., Ugoji, E.O. (2008). Comparison of plant growth promotion with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis in three vegetables. Braz. J. Microbiol. 39(3), 423–426. DOI:

Alloway, B.J. (2008). Zinc in soils and crop nutrition. 2nd ed. International Zinc Association, Brussels, International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris.

Ampong, K., Thilakaranthna, M.S., Gorim, L.Y. (2022). Understanding the role of humic acids on crop performance and soil health. Front. Agron. 4, 1–14. DOI:

Aslan, S., Sarıhan, E.O. (2021). [The effect of humic acid and nitrogen fertilizer applications on some yield and quality features of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.)]. MKU J. Agric. Sci. 26, 29–40. In Turkish. DOI:

Atafar, Z.A., Mesdaghinia, J., Nouri, M., Homaee, M., Yunesian, M., Ahmadimoghaddam, M., Mahvi, A.H. (2010). Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Environ. Monit. Assess. 160, 83–89. DOI:

Aulakh, M.S., Grant, C.A. (2008). Integrated nutrient management for sustainable crop production. CRC Press, 25–39. DOI:

Bernstein, N., Ioffe, M., Bruner, M., Nishri, Y., Luria, G., Dori, I., Matan, E., Philosoph-Hadas, S., Umiel, N., Hagiladi, A. (2005). Effects of supplied nitrogen form and quantity on growth and postharvest quality of Ranunculus asiaticus flowers. HortScience 40(6), 1879–1886. DOI:

Boguta, P., Skic, K., Sokołowska, Z., Frąc, M., Sas-Paszt, L. (2021). Chemical transformation of humic acid molecules under the influence of mineral, fungal and bacterial fertilization in the context of the agricultural use of degraded soils. Molecules 26(16), 4921. DOI:

Bouyoucos, G. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron. J. 54(5), 464–465. DOI:

Delfine, S., Tognetti, R., Desiderio, E., Alvino, A. (2005). Effect of foliar application of N and humic acids on growth and yield of durum wheat. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 25(2), 183–191. DOI:

Delgado, V.F., Lopez, O.P., Gonzalez, E.A. (1998). Effect of sunlight illumination on marigold flowers meals and egg yolk pigmentation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46(2), 698–706. DOI:

Dong, L., Córdova-Kreylos, A.L., Yang, J., Yuan, H., Scow, K.M. (2009). Humic acids buffer the effects of urea on soil ammonia oxidizers and potential nitrification. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41(8), 1612–1621. DOI:

Dong, L.H., Yuan, Q., Yuan, H.L. (2006). Changes of chemical properties of humic acids from crude and fungal transformed lignite. Fuel 85(17–18), 2402–2407. DOI:

Dudley, J.B., Pertuit, A.J., Toler, J.E. (2004). Leonardite influences zinnia and marigold growth. HortSci. 39(2), 251–255. DOI:

Erisman, J.W., Sutton, M.A., Galloway, J., Klimont, Z., Winiwarter, W. (2008). How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world. Nat. Geosci 1, 636–639. DOI:

Esringü, A., Sezen, I., Aytatlı, B., Ercişli, S. (2015). Effect of humic and fulvic acid application on growth parameters in Impatiens walleriana L. Acad. J. Agri. 4(1), 37–42.

Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C. (2005). Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. Adv. Agron. 88, 97–185. DOI:

Garcia-Mina, J.M., Antolin, M.C., Sanchez-Diaz, M. (2004). Metal-humic complexes and plant micronutrient uptake: A study based on different plant species cultivated in diverse soil types. Plant Soil 258, 57–68. DOI:

Haj Seyed Hadi, M.R., Abarghooei Fallah, M., Darzi, M.T. (2015). Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost application on flower yield and essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria chamomile L.). J. Chem. Health Risks 5(3), 235–244.

Hatami, H. (2017). The effect of zinc and humic acid applications on yield and yield components of sunflower in drought stress. J. Adv. Agric. Technol. 4(1). DOI:

Ibrahim, E.A., Ramadan, W.A. (2015). Effect of zinc foliar spray alone and combined with humic acid or/and chitosan on growth, nutrient elements content and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants sown at different dates. Sci. Hortic. 184, 101–105. DOI:

Ji, C., Li, J., Jiang, C., Zhang, L., Shi, L., Xu, F., Cai, H. (2022). Zinc and nitrogen synergistic act on root-toshoot translocation and preferential distribution in rice. J. Adv. Res. 35, 187–198. DOI:

Kacar, B. (1972). [Chemical analysis of plant and soil]. Ankara Unı Fac of Agric Public 453, A.U. Publisher, Ankara. In Turkish.

Kutlu, I., Gulmezoglu, N. (2020). Morpho-agronomic characters of oat growing with humic acid and zinc application in different sowing times. Plant Sci. Today 7(4), 594–600. DOI:

Kutlu, I., Gulmezoglu, N. (2023). Suitable humic acid application methods to maintain physiological and enzymatic properties of bean plants under salt stress. Gesunde Pflanzen 75, 1075–1086. DOI:

Lana, M.D.C., Dartora, J., Marini, D., Hann, J.E. (2012). Inoculation with Azospirillum, associated with nitrogen fertilization in maize. Rev. Ceres 59(3), 399–405. DOI:

Leite, J.M., Arachchige, P.S.P., Ciampitti, I.A., Hettiarachchi, G.M., Maurmann, L., Trivelin, P.C., Prasad, P.V.V., Sunoj, S.J. (2020). Co-addition of humic substances and humic acids with urea enhances foliar nitrogen use efficiency in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Heliyon 6(10), e05100. DOI:

Li, B., Xin, W., Sun, S., Shen, Q., Xu, G. (2006). Physiological and molecular responses of nitrogen-starved rice plants to re-supply of different nitrogen sources. Plant Soil 287, 145–159. DOI:

Liberal, I.M., Burrus, M., Suchet, C., Thébaud, C., Vargas, P. (2014). The evolutionary history of Antirrhinum in the Pyrenees inferred from phylogeographic analyses. BMC Evol. Biol. 14, 146. DOI:

Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W. (1978). Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42(3), 421–428. DOI:

Liu, X.J., Zhang, Y., Han, W.X., Tang, A.H., Shen, J.L., Cui, Z.L., Vitousek, P., Erisman, J.W., Goulding, K., Christie, P., Fangmeier, A., Zhang, F.S. (2013). Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China. Nature 494, 459–462. DOI:

Luo, L., Zhang, Y., Xu, G. (2020). How does nitrogen shape plant architecture? J. Exp. Bot. 71(15), 4415–4427. DOI:

Memon, S.A., Khetran, K. (2014). Effect of humic acid and calcium chloride on the growth and flower production of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.). J. Agric. 10(6), 1549–1561.

Mohamed, N.A.A., Elagabain, S.A. (2021). Response of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus Coronette F1) to compost amendment and foliar fertilization. Sudan J. Des. Res. 13(1), 57–70.

Mohammadipour, E., Golchin, A., Mohammadi, J., Negahdar, N., Zarchini, M. (2012). Effect of humic acid on yield and quality of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Ann. Biol. Res. 3(11), 5095–5098.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L. (1983). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Methods of soil analysis.Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, A.L. Page (ed.). Book Series Agronomy Monographs, 539–579. DOI:

Nelson, R.E. (1983). Carbonate and gypsum. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, A.L. Page (ed.). Book Series Agronomy Monographs, 181–196. DOI:

Nikbakht, A., Kafi, M., Babalar, M., Xia, Y.P., Luo, A., Etemadi, N.A. (2008). Effect of humic acid on plant growth, nutrient uptake, and postharvest life of gerbera. J. Plant Nutr. 31(12), 2155–2167. https://doi. org/10.1080/01904160802462819 DOI:

Olsen, S.R., Dean, L.A. (1965). Phosphorus. In: Chemical and microbiological properties. Methods of soil analysis, part 2, 1035–1048. DOI:

Ozkutlu, F., Torun, B., Cakmak, I. (2006). Effect of zinc humate on growth of soybean and wheat in zinc deficient calcareous soil. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 37(1520), 2769–2778. DOI:

Peoples, M.B., Craswell, E.T. (1992). Biological nitrogen fixation: investments, expectations and actual contributions to agriculture. Plant Soil 141, 13–39. DOI:

Pratt P.F. (1965). Potassium. Chemical and microbiological properties. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, 1022–1030. DOI:

Quaggiotti, S., Ruperti, B., Pizzeghello, D., Francioso, O., Tugnoli, V., Nardi, S. (2004). Effect of low molecular size humic substances on nitrate uptake and expression of genes involved in nitrate transport in maize (Zea mays L.). J. Exp. Bot. 55(398), 803–813. DOI:

Silva Júnior, J.M. da, Rodrigues, M., Castro, E.M. de, Bertolucci, S.K.V., Pasqual, M. (2013). Changes in anatomy and chlorophyll synthesis in orchids propagated in vitro in the presence of urea. Acta Sci. Agron. 35(1), 65–72. DOI:

Verma, S., Kumar, A., Dwivedi, A.K. (2019). Studies on effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the performance of snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.): A review. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 8(4), 2571–2575.

Wilkinson, S., Weston, A.K., Marks, D.J. (2020). Stabilising urea amine nitrogen increases potato tuber yield by increasing chlorophyll content, reducing shoot growth rate and increasing biomass partitioning to roots and tubers. Potato Res. 63, 217–239. DOI:

Ye, L., Zhao, X., Bao, E., Li, J., Zou, Z., Cao, K. (2020). Bio-organic fertilizer with reduced rates of chemical fertilization improves soil fertility and enhances tomato yield and quality. Sci. Rep. 10(1), 1–11. DOI:

Zhang, S.Q., Yuan, L., Li, W., Lin, Z.A., Li, Y.T., Hu, S.W., Zhao, B.Q. (2019). Effects of urea enhanced with different weathered coal-derived humic acid components on maize yield and fate of fertilizer nitrogen. J. Integr. Agric. 18(3), 656–666. DOI:

Zhu, H., Bilgin, M., Bangham, R., Hall, D., Casamayor, A., Bertone, P., Lan, N., Jansen, R., Bidlingmaier, S., Houfek, T., Mitchell, T., Miller, P., Dean, R.A., Gerstein, M., Snyder, M. (2001). Global analysis of protein activities using proteome chips. Science 293(5537), 2101–2105. DOI:



Nurdilek Gulmezoglu 
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 26160 Eskisehir, Turkiye
Cigdem Yücel 
Republic of Turkiye Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Eskisehir Directorate of Provincial Agriculture and Forestry, 26160 Eskisehir, Turkiye
Sibel Yigiter-Saricam 
Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Horticulture, 26160 Eskisehir, Turkiye


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.