THE EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE ON SOME ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITIES UNDER SALT STRESS IN SUNFLOWER PLANTS
The effects of externally applied sodium nitroprusside on superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities, nitric oxide (NO) levels have investigated in salt stress resistant and sensitive sunflower plants. NaCl treatments and SNP treatments simultaneous with salt application (NaCl + SNP) were performed. SOD, GPx, APX and CAT antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels, showed differences in leaf tissues treated with 100 µM SNP, different concentrations of NaCl, and NaCl + SNP. SOD, GPx and APX enzyme activities were generally increased in sensitive variety but decreased in tolerant variety. However, while generally increase in CAT enzyme activity was determined in tolerant type, a reduction was established in sensitive type. An increase was determined in both types in NO levels. It is evident from these results that administration of NO donor SNP can cope with reactive oxygen species in both varieties. This study indicates that the negative effects of salt stress on different sun flower varieties can be recovered by nitric oxide.
salt stress; Helianthus annuus L.; antioxidant enzymes; nitric oxide; SNP
Arasimowicz-Jelonek, M., Floryszak-Wieczorek, K.J. (2009). Involvement of nitric oxide in water stress-induced responses of cucumber roots. Plant Sci., 177, 682–690.
Boogar, A.R., Salehi, H., Jowkar, A. (2014). Exogenous nitric oxide alleviates oxidative damage in turf grasses under drought stres. South Afr. J. Bot., 92, 78–82.
Caverzan, A., Casassola, A., Brammer, S.P. (2016). Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress. Gen. Mol. Biol., 39(1), 1–6.
Chawla, S., Jain, S., Jain, V. (2013). Salinity induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol., 22, 27–34.
Corpas, F.J., Leterrier, M., Valderramab, R., Airakia, M., Chakia, M., Palmaa, J. M., Barroso, J.B. (2011). Nitric oxide imbalance provokes a nitrosative response in plants under abiotic stres. Rev. Plant Sci., 181(5), 604–611.
Flowers, T.J., Troke, P.F., Yeo, A.R. (1977). The mechanism of salt tolerance in Halophytes. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 28, 89−121.
Bot, A.J., Nachtergaele, F.O., Young, A. (2000). Land resource potential and constraints at regional and country levels. World Soil Resources Reports 90. Land and Water Development Division. FAO, Rome.
Gao, S., Ouyang, C., Wang, S., Xu, Y., Tang, L., Chen, F. (2008). Effects of salt stress on growth, antioxidant enzyme and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities in Jatropha curcas L. seedlings. Plant Soil Environ., 54 (9), 374–381.
Garcia-Mata, C., Lamattina L. (2001). Nitric oxide induces stomatal closure and enhances the adaptive plant responses against drought stress. Plant Physiol., 126, 1196–1204.
Gill, S.S., Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K., Macovei, A., Tuteja, N. (2013). Importance of nitric oxide in cadmium stress tolerance in crop plants. Rev. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 63, 254–261.
Hayat, S., Hayat, Q., Alyemeni, M.N., Wani, A.S., Pichtel, J., Ahmad, A. (2012). Role of proline under changing environments: A review. Plant Signal. Behav., 7(11), 1456–1466.
Kirecci, O.A., Yurekli, F. (2017). The relationship between drought stress and signal transduction molecules in sensitive and resistant wheat varieties. Fresenius Env. Bull., 26, 2463–2470.
Laspina, N.V., Groppa, M.D., Tomaro, M.L., Benavides, M.P. (2005). Nitric oxide protects sunflower leaves against Cd-induced oxidative stres. Plant Sci., 169, 323–330.
Li, Q., Niu, H., Yin, J., Wang, M., Shao, H., Deng, D., Chen, X., Ren, J., Li, Y. (2008). Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative-stress induced by salt stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Coll. Surf. B Biointerfaces, 65, 220–225.
Liu, M., Cai, K., Chen, Y., Luo, S., Zhang, Z., Eur, W.L. (2014). Proteomic analysis of silicon-mediated resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Plant Pathol., 139, 579–592.
Miller, K.J., Woods, J.R. (1996). Osmo-adaptation by rhizosphere bacteria. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 50, 101–136.
Parvaiz, A., Arafat, A., Latef, A., Hashem, A., AbdAllah, E.F., Gucel, S., Lam-Son, P.T. (2016). Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea. Front Plant Sci., 7, 347.
Praxedes, S.C., Damatta, F.M., De Lacerd, CF., Prisco, JT., Gomes-Filho, E. (2014). Salt stress tolerance in cowpea is poorly related to the ability to cope with oxidative stress. Acta Bot. Croat., 73(1), 51–62.
Schutzendubell, A., Polle, A. (2002). Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization. J. Exp. Bot., 53, 1351–1365.
Song, L., Ding, W., Zhao, M., Son, B., Zhang, L. (2006). Nitric oxide protect against oxidative stress under heat stress in the calluses from two ecotypes of reed. Plant Sci., 171, 449–458.
Srinieng, K., Saisavoey, T., Karnchanatat, A. (2015). Effect of salinity stress on antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato cultured in vitro. Pak. J. Bot., 47(1), 1–10.
Uchida, A., Jagendorf, A.T., Hibino, T., Takabe, T., Takabe, T. (2002). Effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide on both salt and heat stress tolerance in rice. Plant Sci. 163, 515–523.
Unal, B.T., Aktas, L.Y., Guven, A. (2014). Effects of salinity on antioxidant enzymes and proline in leaves of barley seedlings in different growth stages. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci., 20(4), 883–887.
Uzilday, A., Turkan, I., Sekmen, A.H., Ozgur, R., Karakaya, H.C. (2012). Comparison of ROS formation and antioxidant enzymes in Cleome gynandra (C4) and Cleome spinosa (C3) under drought stres. Plant Sci., 182, 59–70.
Yurekli, F., Kirecci, O.A. (2016). The relationship between nitric oxide and plant hormones in SNP administrated sunflower plants under salt stress condition. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 15(6), 177–191.
Zeng, C.L., Liu, L., Wang, B.R., Wu, X.M., Zhou, Y. (2011). Physiological effects of exogenous nitric oxide on Brassica juncea seedlings under NaCl stress. Biol. Plant, 55, 345–348.
Zhang, Y., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, Q., Wei, Q., Zhang, W, (2006). Nitric oxide enhances salt tolerance in maize seedlings through increasing activities of proton-pump and Na+/H+ antiport in the tonoplast. Planta, 224, 545–555.
Zhang, J. (2011). China’s success in increasing per capita food production. J. Exp. Bot., 62, 3707–3711.
Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
The author signs a statement on the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals and the transfer of copyright to the publisher.
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form without the written permission of the editor.