Husniye Imamoglu

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul, Turkey


The phenolic compounds, sugar, mineral contents and antioxidant capacity of the Ziziphus jujube (Hunnap) fruits collected from five different locations in Turkey were determined. Total phenolic contents ranged from 652.4 to 1348.4 mg GAE 100 g-1 g fruit dry weight. Fourteen phenolic compounds; gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, para-coumaric acid, hesperidin, naringin, rutin, ellagic acid, quercetin, naringenin and vanillin were identified and quantified. Among the ju-jubes, considerable differences in phenolic materials were found. Catechin levels ranged from 5.95 to 100.96 mg 100 g-1, and ellagic acid levels ranged from 5.87 to 26.32 mg 100 g-1 for jujube fruits in dry weight basis. Potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magne-sium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. The antioxidative capacity of the jujube extracts, evaluated with the % inhibition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl (DPPH•), and the 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS•+) scav-enging methods. A positive correlation was found between total phenolic contents and an-tioxidant activity of jujubes.


jujube, bioactive compounds, phenolics, polisaccharide, mineral

Anupama, D., Bhat, K., Sapna, V. (2002). Sensory and physicochemical properties of commercial samples of honey. Food Res. Int., 36, 183–191.
AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis (15th Ed.), Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc.
Apak, R., Guclu, K., Demirata, B., Ozyurek, M., Celik, S.E., Bektasoglu, B., Berker K. I., Ozyurt, D. (2007). Comparative evaluation of various total antioxidant capacity assays applied to phe-nolic compounds with the CUPRAC assay. Molecules, 12, 496–547.
Borgi, W., Recio, Mc., Ri’Os, J.L., Chouchane, N. (2008). Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of flavonoid and saponin fractions from Zizyphus lotus (L.) Lam. S. Afr. J. Bot., 74, 320–324.
Choi, S.H., Ahn, J.B., Kim, H.J., Im, N.K., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E. (2012). Changes in free amino acid, protein, and flavonoid content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts. J. Ag. Food Chem., 60(41), 10245–10255.
Cuartero, M., Ortuño, J.A., Truchado, P., García, M.S., Tomás-Barberán, F.A., Albero, M.I. (2011). Voltammetric behaviour and square-wave voltammetric determination of the potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent ellagic acid in food stuffs. Food Chem., 128, 549–554.
Cui, G., Zhang, W., Zhang, A., Mu, H., Bai, H., Duan, J. (2013). Variation in antioxidant acitvi-ties of polysaccharides from fructus jujube in South Xinjiang area. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 57, 278–284.
Elaloui, M., Laamouri, A., Fabre, J., Mathieu, C., Vilaren, G., Hasnaoui, B. (2015). Distribution of free amino acids, polyphenols ans sugars of Ziziphus jujuba pulps harevsted from plants grown in Tunisia. Nat. Prod. Res., 29(1), 94–97.
Erenmemisoglu, A., Keletimur, F., Koker, A.H., Utsuol, H., Tekol, Y., Ustdal, M. (1995). Hypoglycemic activity of Zizyphus jujuba. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 47, 72–74.
Gao, Q.H., Wu, P.T., Liu, J.R., Wu, C.S., Parry, J.W., Wang, M. (2011). Physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of different jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) cultivars grown in loess plateau of China. Sci. Horticul., 130, 67–72.
Gao, Q.H., Wu, C.S., Yu, J.G., Wang, M., Ma, Y.J., Li, C.L. (2012). Textural characteristic, antioxidant activity, sugar, organic acid, and phenolic profiles of 10 promosing jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) selections. J. Food Sci., 77(11), 1218–1225.
García-Nino, W.R., Zazueta, C. (2015). Ellagic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in liver protection. Pharmacol. Res., 97, 84–103.
Glombitza, K.W., Mahran, G.H., Mirhom, Y.W., Michel, K.G., Motawi, T.K. (1994). Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Zizyphus spina-christi in rats. Planta Med., 60, 244–247.
Gupta, M., Mazumder, U.K., Vamsi, M.L.M., Sivakumar, T., Kandar, C.C. (2004). Antisteroidogenic activity of the two Indian medicinal plants in mice. J. Ethnopharm., 90, 21–25.
Han, B.H., Park, M.H., Han, Y.N. (1990). Cyclic peptide and peptide alkaloids from seeds of Zizyphus vulgaris. Phytochem., 29, 3315–3319.
Hatano, T., Kgawa, H., Yasuhara, T., Okuda, T. (1988). Two new flavonoids and other constituents in licorice roottheir relative astringency and radical scavenging effects. Chem. Pharm. Bull., 36, 2090–2097.
Huang, W.K. (1989). Food testing and analysis. China. Light Industry Press.
Huang, X., Kojima-Yuasa, A., Norikura, T., Kennedy, D.O., Hasuma, T., Matsui-Yuasa, I. (2007). Mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of Zizyphus jujuba in HepG2 Cells. Am. J. Chin. Med., 35(3), 517–532.
Huang, X., Kojima-Yuasa, A., Xu, S., Norikura, T., Kennedy, D.O., Hasuma, T., Matsuı-Yuasa, I. (2008). Green tea extract enhances the selective cytotoxic activity of Zizyphus jujuba extracts in HepG2 Cells. Am. J. Chin. Med., 36(4), 729–744.
Huang, Y.L., Yen, G.C., Sheu, F., Chau, C.F. (2008). Effects of water-soluble carbohydrate con-centrate from Chinese jujube on different intestinal and fecal indices. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56, 1734−1739.
Hudina, M., Liu, M., Veberic, R., Stampar, F., Colaric, M. (2008). Phenolic compounds in the fruit of different varieties of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.). J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech., 83, 305–308.
IHC (2009). Harmonısed Methods of the International Honey Commission, 1–63.
Kamiloglu, O., Ercisli, S., Sengul, M., Toplu, C., Serce, S. (2009). Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) genotypes selected from Turkey. Afr. J. Bio-technol., 8, 303–307.
Karaaslan, N.M., Ince Kaplan, O., Ince, M. (2014). Fenolik Bileşiklerin HPLC-DAD ile Tayini İçin Metod Geliştirilmesi ve Validasyonu. VII. Ulusal Analitik Kimya Kongresi, 1–5 Eylül, Kahramanmaraş (in Turkish).
Keser, S., Celik, S., Turkoglu, S. (2013). Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 64(2), 210–216.
Krifa, M., Bouhlel, I., Ghedira-Chekir, L., Ghedira, K. (2013). Immunomodulatory and cellular antioxidant activities of an aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall. J. Eth-nopharmacol., 146(1), 243–249.
Krishna, H., Parashar, A. (2013). Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant acitvities of some Indian jujube (Ziziphus Mauritiana) cultivars. J. Food Chem., 37, 571–577.
Kou, X., Chen, Q., Li, X., Li, M., Kan, C., Chen, B., Zhang, Y., Xue, Z. (2015). Quantitative assessment of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of 15 jujube cultivars. Food Chem., 173, 1037–1044.
Li, J.W., Fan, L.P., Ding S.D., Ding, X.L.(2007). Nutritional composition of five cultivars of chinese jujube. Food Chem., 100(2), 454–460.
Naik, S.R., Bhagat, S., Shaha, P.D., Tarea, A.A., Ingawalea, D., Wadekar, R.R. (2013). Evaluation of anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rodents. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., 23, 811–818.
Norusis, M.J. (1993). SPSS for Windows: Base System User’s Guide, SPSS, Chicago.
Osborne, C.G., Mctyre, R.B., Dudek, J., Roche, K.E., Scheuplein, R., Silverstein, B. (1996). Evidence for the relationship of calcium to blood pressure. Nutr. Rev., 54, 365–381.
Pareek, S., Fageria, M.S., Dhaka, R.S. (2002). Perfromance of ber genotypes under arid condition. Curr. Agric., 26, 63–65.
Pareek, S. (2013). Nutritional composition of jujube fruit. Emir. J. Food Agric., 25(6), 463–470.
Pawlowska, A.M., Camangi, F., Bader, A., Braca, A. (2009). Flavonoids of Ziziphus jujuba L. and Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd (Rhamnaceae) fruits. Food Chem., 112, 858–862.
Plastina, P., Bonofiglio, D., Vizza, D., Fazio, A., Rovito, D., Giordano, C., Barone, I., Catalano, S., Gabriele, B. (2012). Identification of bioactive constituents of Ziziphus jujube fruit extracts exerting antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in human breast cancer cells. J. Ethnopharma-col., 140(2), 325–332.
Peng, W.H., Hsieh, M.T., Lee, Y.S., Lin, Y.C., Liao, J. (2000). Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxiety. J. Ethnopharmacol., 72(3), 435–441.
Poyrazoglu, E., Gokmen, V., Artık, N. (2002). Organic acids and phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica grganatum L.) grown in Turkey. J. Food Comp. Anal., 14, 567–75.
San, B., Yıldırım, A.N. (2010). Phenolic, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and fatty acid composition of four promising jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) selections. J. Food Comp. Anal., 23, 706–710.
Simas-Tosin, F.F., Abud, A.P.R., De Oliveira, C., Gorin, P.A.J., Sassaki, G.L., Bucchi, D.F. (2012). Polysaccharides from peach pulp: Structure and effects onmouse peritoneal macro-phages. Food Chem., 134(4), 2257–2260.
Singh, S., Arya, R. (2011). Zizyphus: An Extroversion Gift of Nature. J. Sci., 1, 15–20.
Sun, J., Chu, Y.F., Wu, X.Z., Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 7449–7454.
Sheng, G., Yu Ping, T., Jin, A.O.D., Shu Lan, S., Wei An, D. (2009). Two new terpenoids from fruits of Ziziphus jujube. Chin. Chem. Lett., 20, 197–200.
Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Meth. Enzy-mol., 299, 152–178.
Siriamornpun, S., Weerapreeyakul, N., Barusrux, S. (2015). Bioactive compounds and health implications are better for green jujube fruit than for ripe fruit. J. Funct. Foods., 12, 246–255.
Soares, J.R., Dins, T.C.P., Cunha, A.P., Ameida, L.M. (1997). Antioxidant activity of some extracts of Thymus zygis. Free Rad. Res., 26, 469–478.
Vaya, J.B., Aviram, P. (1997). Antioxidant constituents from licorice roots: isolation, structure, elucidation and antioxidative capacity toward LDL oxidation. Free Rad. Biol. Med., 23, 302–313. tive effects of the polysaccharides from Zizyphus jujube cv. Shaanbeitanzao. Carbo-hydr. Polym., 88(4), 1453–1459.
Wu, L., Chang, L., Chen, S., Fan, N., Ho, J.A. (2009). Antioxidant activity and melanogenesis inhibitory effect of the acetonic extract of Osmanthus fragrans: A potential natural and func-tional food flavor additive. LWT – Food Sci. Technol., 42, 1513–1519.
Wu, C.S., Gao, Q.H., Guo, X.D., Yu, J.G., Wang, M. (2012). Effect of ripening stage on physico-chemical properties and antioxidant profiles of a promising table fruit pear-jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.). Sci. Horticult., 148, 177–184.
Yang, J.H., Lin, H.C., Mau, J.L. (2002). Antioxidant properties of several commercial mush-rooms. Food Chem., 77, 229–235.
Yeung, W.F., Chung, F., Poon, M.M., Ho, F.Y., Zhang, S.P., Zhang, Z.J., Ziea, E.T., Wong, V.T. (2012). Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Sleep Med. Rev., 16, 497–507.
Yu, L., Jiang, B.P., Luo, D., Shen, X.C., Guo, S., Duan, J.A., Tang, Y.P. (2012). Bioactive components in the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. against the inflammatory irritant action of Eu-phorbia plants. Phytomedicine, 19, 239–244.
Zhang, H., Jiang, L., Ye, S., Ye, Y., Ren, F. (2010). Systematic evaluation of antioxidant capaci-ties of the ethanolic extract of different tissues of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) from China. Food Chem. Toxic., 48, 1461–1465.
Zemel, M.B. (1997). Dietary pattern and hypertension: the DASH study. Nutr. Rev., 55, 303–305.


Husniye Imamoglu 
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Istanbul, Turkey



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.