Agata Konarska

University of Life Sciences in Lublin


Tilia cordata is a good source of food attractants for bees. These insects are the primary pollinators of flowers of this species. Nectar is produced in the floral trichomatous nectaries located on a projection of the adaxial, basal part of the sepals. There were two types of non-glandular hairs on the sepals; the first one to prevent the nectar from flowing out beyond the sepal and the other type to protect the nectary itself. The clavate secretory trichomes, forming dense clusters, are composed of a base, stalk, and multicellular head. The secretory cells of the trichome head contain a thick cytoplasm and a large nucleus; they are also characterized by a low degree of vacuolation. Nectar accumulates at the tip of the trichome in the space formed between the cell wall of the head cells and the
cuticle. The several-layered subepidermal glandular parenchyma with densely packed cells is provided with vascular bundles containing xylem and phloem. Plastids containing small starch grains were noticed in many cells of the nectariferous tissue, whereas phenolic compounds were found in the adaxial epidermal cells of the sepals. No presence of starch, lipids, or phenolic compounds was found in the cells of the glandular hairs. However, numerous chloroplasts, calcium oxalate crystals and large mucilage cavities occurred in the subglandular tissue.


Malvaceae, secretory trichomes, micromorphology, anatomy, mucilage cavities, phenolic substances

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Agata Konarska 
University of Life Sciences in Lublin



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