MITIGATION OF HEAT STRESS EFFECTS BY USING SHADE NET ON WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE TREES GROWN IN AL-NUBARIA REGION, EGYPT
Saied Kamel Mohamed Abd El-NabyHorticultural Crops Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypttional Research Centre
Abdel Monem Ahmed Mohamed EsmailCentral Laboratory for Agricultural Climate, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Giza, Egypt
Mohamed Hemdan Mohamed BaieaHorticultural Crops Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Osama Abd El-Fattah AminHorticultural Crops Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
Amr Abdelkhalek Ahmed MohamedHorticultural Crops Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt
High temperature stress can be detrimental to plants, resulting in reduced fruit yield and increased incidences of fruit disorders. One strategy that farmers can use to maintain or increase their yields in the face of a changing climate is to adjust of farm climate by using shade net on the trees. Such, the use of shade netting on Washington navel orange planted on the sandy soil in Al-Nubaria region, Egypt were studied during two successive seasons, either using a permanent shade throughout all the season or using a moveable shade for certain period from the first of March until the end of June for every season. Growth (No. of shoots/one meter branch, No. of leaves/shoot, shoot length and chlorophyll content of the leaves, leaf area and tree canopy), macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na) content in the leaves, fruit characteristics (number, weight, diameter, peel thickness, total soluble solids, total acidity and ascorbic acid), yield and crop efficiency, were determined. It can be concluded that covering Washington navel orange trees grown on sandy soil with shade net especial covering the trees for certain period was very effective at protecting orange trees and led to improve the growth, increase the yield and maintain fruit quality.
Keywords:navel orange, shade net, growth, nutrients status, yield, fruit quality, crop efficiency
Abd El-Naby, S.K.M., El-Sonbaty, M.R. (2016). Navel orange production in relation with replacement of chemical fertilizers by organic manures on sandy soil in Egypt. Int. J. PharmTech Res., 9(4), 8–17.
Abd El-Naby, S.K.M., Abd El-Moneim, E.A.A., Abd-Allah, A.S.E. (2004). Effect of source and date of organic manure application on growth, yield, fruit quality and mineral content of Washington navel orange trees grown in sandy soil. Minufiya Agric. Res., 29(2), 515– 540.
Alloway, B.J., Jackson, A.P. (1991). The behavior of heavy metals in sewage sludge amended soils. Sci. Total Environ., 100, 151–176.
AOAC – Association of Official Agriculture Chemists (1995). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. Arlington, Virginia, USA, chap. (45)18–20, (37)10.
Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.E. (1978). Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plants and Waters. Univ. of California, Div. Agric. Sci., vol. 4034.
Cottanie, A., Verloo, M., Kiekens, L., Velghe, G., Camerlynch, R. (1982). Chemical Analysis of Plant and Soils. Lab. Anal. Agroch. State Univ., Ghent, Belgium, chap. 2, 14–32, chap. 3, 33–53.
Dayioglu, A., Hepaksoy, S. (2016). Effects of shading nets on sunburn and quality of Granny Smith apple fruits. Acta Hortic., 1139, 523–528. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1139.90
Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple ranges and multiple F testes. Biometrics, 11, 1–42.
Espinoza, L.A, McNeal, B.L., Nguyen, J.H. (1998). Nutrient and metal trends as a result of biosolids application to a south Florida citrus grove. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. Florida, 57, 39–54.
Farag, K.M., Nagy, N.M.N. (2012). Effective Reduction of postset and preharvest abscissions and increasing the yield of Washington navel orange fruits by 1-MCP, GA and NAA. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 8(10), 5132–5141.
Gent, M.P.N. (2007). Effect of degree and duration of shade on quality of greenhouse tomato. HortScience, 42(3), 514–520. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.42.3.514
Ignasi, I., Alegre, S. (2006). The effect of anti-hail nets on fruit protection, radiation, temperature, quality and proﬁtability of ‘Mondial Gala’ apples. J. Appl. Hortic., 8(2), 91–100.
Ilić, S.Z., Fallik, E. (2017). Light quality manipulation improves vegetable quality at harvest and postharvest:
A review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 139, 79–90. DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.04.006
Israeli, Y., Plaut, Z., Schwartz, A. (1995). Effect of shade on banana morphology, growth and production. Sci. Hortic., 62, 45–59.
Jackson, M.H. (1973). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, Chap. 8, 183–204.
Jifon, J.L., Syvertsen, J.P. (2001). Effects of moderate shade on citrus leaf gas exchange, fruit yield and quality. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 114, 177–181.
Jones, W.W., Embleton, T.W. (1960). Leaf analysis nitrogen content program for orange. Calif. Citrogen, 16(10), 321.
Jutamanee, K., Ommon, S. (2016). Improving photosynthetic performance and some fruit quality traits in mango trees by shading. Photosynthetica, 54(4), 542–550. DOI: 10.1007/s11099-016-0210-1
Krizek, D.T., Saftner, R.A., Park, E., Abbott, J.A., Camp, M.J., Clark, H.D. (2006). Yield data from 2005 and instrumental and sensory evaluation of tomato fruits from plants grown in high tunnels at Beltsville, MD or obtained from commercial sources. HortScience, 41, 1083. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.41.4.1083A
Léchaudel, M., Génard, M., Lescourret, F., Urban, L., Jannoyer, M. (2002). Leaf-to-fruit ratio affects water and dry-matter content of mango fruit. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 77, 773–777. DOI: 10.1080/14620316.2002.11511571
Lindsay, W.L., Norvell, W.A. (1978). Development of
a DTPA micronutrient soil tests for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci. Am. J., 42, 421–428.
Mahmood, A., Hu, Y., Tanny, J., Asantea, E.A. (2018). Effects of shading and insect-proof screens on crop microclimate and production: A review of recent advances. Sci. Hortic., 241, 241–251. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.06.078
Marouelli, W.A., Silva, W.L. (2005). Drip irrigation frequency for processing tomatoes during vegetative growth stage. Pes. Agropec. Brasil., 40, 661–666. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2005000700006
Marsh, K.B., Richardson A.C., Macrae, E.A. (1999). Early- and mid-season temperature effects on the growth and composition of Satsuma mandarins. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 74(4), 443–451. DOI: 10.1080/14620316.1999.11511135
Mata, D.A., Botto, J.F. (2009). Manipulation of light environment to produce high-quality Poinsettia plants. HortScience, 44(3), 702–706. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.44.3.702
Medany, M.A., Abdrabbo, M.A.A., Farag, A.A., Hassanien, M.K., Abou-Hadid, A.F. (2009). Growth and productivity of mango grown under greenhouse conditions. Egypt. J. Hort. 36(2), 373–382.
Ngouajio, M., Wang, G., Goldy, R. (2007). Withholding of drip irrigation between transplanting and flowering increases the yield of field-grown tomato under plastic mulch. Agric. Water Manag., 87, 285–291. DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2006.07.007
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of phosphorus in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. US Dept. Agric., Circular No. 939, 1–19.
Plummer, D.T. (1978). An introduction to practical biochemistry, 2nd ed. Mc Graw Hill Book Company, London, p. 144.
Roose, M.L., Cole, D.A., Atki, D., Kupper, R.S. (1989). Yield and tree size of four citrus cultivars on 21 rootstocks in California. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 114(4), 678–684.
Rylski, I., Spigelman, M. (1986). Effect of shading on plant developments, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper grown under conditions of high temperatures and radiation Sci. Hortic., 29, 31–35.
Shrestha, T.N., Balakrishnan, K. (1985). Estimation of leaf area in acid lime by non-destructive analysis. South
Indian Hortic., 33(6), 393–394.
Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, W.G. (1982). Statistical, 6th ed. The Iowa State Univ. Press, Amess, Iowa, USA,
Storey, R., Treeby, M.T. (1999). Short- and long-term growth of navel orange fruit. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 74(4), 464–471. DOI: 10.1080/14620316.1999.11511138
Syvertsen, J.P., Smith, M.L. (1996). Nitrogen uptake efficiency and leaching losses from bysimeter-grown citrus trees fertilized at three nitrogen rates. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 121(1), 57–62.
Takeda, F., Veazie, P.P. (2009). The nuts and bolts of high tunnel production and manipulation for specialized applications: introduction to the workshop. HortScience, 44(2), 230. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.44.2.230
Werner, B. (1992). Nutritional Disorders of Plants. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena–Stuttgart–New York, 304–353.
Whitney, J.D., Wheaton, T.A., Castel, W.S., Tucker, D.P.H. (1995). Tree height, fruit size and fruit yield affect manual orange harvesting rates. Proc. Fla. State Hortic. Soc., 108, 112–118.
Wien, H.C. (2009). Microenvironmental variations within the high tunnel. HortScience, 44(2), 235–238. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.44.2.235
Wutscher, H.K., Smith, P.F. (1994). Citrus. In: Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities in Crop Plants, Bennett, W.F. (ed.). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena–Stuttgart, chap. 17, 165–170.
Zhou, K., Jerszurki, D., Sadka, A., Shlizerman, L., Rachmilevitch, Sh., Ephrath, J. (2018). Effects of photoselective netting on root growth and development of young grafted orange trees under semi-arid climate. Sci. Hortic., 238, 272–280. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2018.04.054
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.