AGRONOMIC AND QUALITATIVE TRAITS OF SAFFRON AND CUMIN IN RESPONSE TO INTERCROPPING
Mohammadreza MalekiBirjand branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
Mohammadjavad SeghatoleslamiDepartment of Agriculture, Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
Gholamreza MousaviDepartment of Agriculture, Birjand branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran
Hassan FeiziDepartment of Plant Production, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
As well as the expansion of land use due to the short period of saffron growth, its intercropping can also enhance yields and agronomic traits, which usually happens through weed control, shading, and the reduction of soil temperature and growth climate. Therefore, the effects of cumin seed rates in an intercropping on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of saffron were studied in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in Zaveh, Torbat-E Heydariyeh, Iran, during 2016–2017. Treatments included five levels of cumin seed proportions (25, 50, 75 and 100% of the optimum density). The results of the study indicated the significant effect of cumin seed rates on all the measured traits of saffron except the number of flowers, daughter corms and leaves, as well as safranal value. The minimum and maximum weight of dry stigma was associated with the ratios of 100 and 25% of cumin seed, respectively. Any increase in the ratio of cumin seed by over 25% reduced the amount of other quantitative traits. The cumin seed ratio showed significant effects on the number of umbels per plant, the number of seeds per plant, and seed yield. Since the increase in the number of seeds per plant as a result of low ratios of cumin seed cannot compensate for the reduction of plants, therefore, lower yields would be attained. Totally, increasing shading and less competition, due to lower ratios of seed, improves physical, chemical and biological conditions of the soil, and helps to save more water. Such conditions improve the traits of corm, flower, and photosynthetic area, and so results in an economical saffron yield.
Keywords:cover crop, cumin, qualitative traits, saffron, yield
Andabjadid, S., Pasban, B., Sadeghi Bakhtavari, A., Mohammadi, H. (2015). Effects of corm size and plant density on Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) yield and its components. Inter. J. Agron. Agric. Res., 6(3), 20–26.
Aqhavani Shajari, M. (2017). Feasibility study of corm size and improved yield of saffron through agricultural management. PhD thesis. Ferdowsi University of Mashahd, Iran [in Persian].
Asadi, G., Khoramdel, S., Hatefi, M. (2016). The effects of cultivation ratios of pea and saffron row intercropping on yield and some growth traits. J. Saffron Agron. Tech., 4(2), 93–103 [in Persian].
Bayat, M., Tajbakhsh, M., Ramezani, M. (2016). Evaluation of saffron ecotypes for stigma yield and yield components using different maternal corm weights. J. Plant Physiol. Breed., 6(1), 53–64 [in Persian].
Fallahi, H., Behdani, M. (2016). Technical knowledge based on research approaches. Mashhad University Jihad Publications, pp. 412.
Fallahi, H., Paravar, A., Behdani, M.A., Aghhavani-Shajari, M., Fallahi, M.J. (2014). Effects of saffron corm and leaf extracts on early growth of some plants to investigate the possibility of using them as associated crop. Not. Sci. Biol., 6(3), 282–287.
Farhoodi, R., Rahnama, A., Esmailzadeh, H. (2014). Status of saffron planting in intercropping. 3rd National Conference on Saffron, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
Feizi, H., Mollafilabi, A., Sahabi, H., Ahmadian, A. (2014). The effect of summer irrigation and conservation tillage on flower yield and qualitative indexes of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). J. Saffron Agron. Tech., 2(4), 255–263 [in Persian].
Galavi, M., Soloki, M., Mousavi, S.R., Ziyaie, M. (2008). Effect of planting depth and soil summer temperature control on growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Asian J. Plant Sci., 7, 747–751. DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2008.747.751
Heidari Zolleh, H., Bahraminejad, G., Maleki, A., Papzan, H. (2009). Response of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) to sowing date and plant density. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 5(4), 597–602.
Kafi, M., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., Koocheki, A., Mollafilabi, A. (2002). Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), Production and Processing. Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, 50–60 [in Persian].
Khorramdel, S., Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P. (2017). Evaluation of the effects of saffron-cumin intercropping ratios on quality and yield under semi-arid conditions. Acta Hortic., 1184, 179–184 [in Persian]. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1184.26
Koocheki, A. (2013). Research on production of Saffron in Iran; past trend and future prospects. Saffron Agron. Tech., 1(1), 3–21 [in Persian].
Koocheki, A., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., Azimi, R. (2013). The effect of irrigation intervals and intecropped marjoram (Origanum vulgare) with saffron (crocus sativus) on possible cooling effect of corms for climate change adaptation. Iran. J. Field Crops Res., 11(3), 390–400.
Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Fallahi, H.R. (2015). Effects of planting dates, irrigation management and cover crops on growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Agroecol., 8(3), 435–451. DOI: 10.22067/jag.v8i3.51323.
Koocheki, A., Seyyedi, S.M., Gharaei, S. (2016). Evaluation of the effects of saffron-cumin intercropping on growth, quality and land equivalent ratio under semi-arid conditions. Sci. Hortic., 201, 190–198. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2016.02.005
Lundmark, M., Vaughan, H., Lapointe, L. (2009). Low temperatures maximize growth of Crocus vernus (L.) Hill, via changes in carbon partitioning and corm development. J. Exp. Bot., 60, 2203–2213. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erp103
Mashayekhi, A., Shirzadi, M., Naghavi, H. (2011). Effect of planting date and plant density on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.). Middle East J. Sci. Res., 9(6), 773–777.
Molina, R., Valero, M., Navarro, Y., Guardiola, L., Garsia, A. (2005). Temperature effect on flower formation in saffron. Sci. Hortic., 103, 361–379. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2004.06.005
Mollafilabi, A., Shoorideh, H. (2009). The new methods of saffron production. Fourth National Festival of Saffron, Khorasan–Razavi, Iran, 27–28 October [in Persian].
Omidi, H., Naghdibadi, H.A., Golzad, A., Torabi, H., Fotoukian, M.H. (2009). The effect of chemical and bio-fertilizer source of nitrogen on qualitative and quantitative yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). J. Med. Plant., 8, 98–109.
Paseban, F. (2006). Effective factors on exporting Iranian saffron. Econ. Res., 6(2), 1–15.
Rouhi, M., Kordnaeij, A., Amirshekari, H. (2012). The effects of corm density and cultivation date of watermelon as a living mulch on quantitative and qualitative yield of saffron. J. Crop Prod. Res., 6(1), 29–42 [in Persian].
Sainju, U.M., Singh, B.P., Whitehead, W.F., Wang, S. (2006). Carbon supply and storage in tilled and non-tilled soils as influenced by cover crops and nitrogen fertilization. J. Environ. Qual., 35, 1507–1517. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2005.0189
Zarifpour, N., Naseripouryazdi, M., Nasirimahalati, M. (2014). The effect of different intercrop-combinations on quantitative and qualitative traits of Cuminum cyminum L., and agronomic traits of Cicer arietinum L. Iran. J. Field Crops Res., 12(1), 34–43 [in Persian].
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.