NUTRIENT UPTAKE, PROLINE CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES ACTIVITY OF PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L.) UNDER HIGHER ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NUTRIENT SOLUTION CREATED BY NITRATE OR CHLORIDE SALTS OF POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM
Mohammad AhmadiDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Kazem SouriDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of higher conductivity of nutrient solution created by nitrate or chloride salts of potassium and calcium on growth characteristics of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum var annuum) during four months of growth period. Two EC5 and EC8 dS/m of Hoagland nutrient solution were prepared using various salt combinations, namely; KCl + CaCl2, KNO3 + CaNO3, and KNO3 + CaNO3 + NaCl. Hoagland nutrient solution with EC 1.8 dS/m was served as control. Higher conductivity treatments had different effects on pepper plant growth. The most significant reduction in growth parameters of plant height, shoot fresh weight, fruit yield and nutrients uptake were in plants treated with KCl + CaCl2 particularly at EC8. Application of KNO3 + CaNO3 particularly at EC5 showed no difference with control regarding many growth parameters. Application of KNO3 + CaNO3 at EC5 resulted in higher shoot fresh weight compared to control. All salinity treatments except KNO3 + CaNO3 at EC5 reduced fruit yield compared to control. Treatments of KCl + CaCl2 and KNO3 + CaNO3 + NaCl particularly at EC8 of nutrient solution resulted in higher leaf proline concentration, catalase and peroxidase enzymes activity compared to control. Other conductivity treatments showed no difference in catalase or peroxidase enzymes activity. The significant lowest amount of leaf N, K, Mg and Ca was in KCl + CaCl2 at EC8. On the other hand, the highest leaf macronutrient concentrations were in KNO3 + CaNO3 at EC5 and/or EC8 that showed only higher leaf N and Ca values compared to control. Leaf micronutrient concentrations were highest in KNO3 + CaNO3 at EC5 that generally showed no difference with control plants. However, application of KCl + CaCl2 particularly at EC8 and to less extent KNO3 + CaNO3 + NaCl at EC8 reduced leaf micronutrient concentrations. Application of KNO3 + CaNO3 at EC5 increased and KCl + CaCl2 or KNO3 + CaNO3 + NaCl at EC8 decreased the leaf Fe concentration compared to control plants.
Keywords:Capsicum annuum, catalase, environment, peroxidase, plant nutrition, salinity, stress
Acosta-Motos, J., Ortuño, M., Bernal-Vicente, A., Diaz-Vivancos, P., Sanchez-Blanco, M., Hernandez, J. (2017). Plant responses to salt stress: adaptive mechanisms. Agronomy, 7(1), 18.
Ahmadi, M., Souri, M.K. (2018). Growth and mineral elements of coriander (Corianderum sativum L.) plants under mild salinity with different salts. Acta Physiol. Plantar., 40, 94–99.
Amalfitano, C.A., Del Vacchio, L.D.V., Somma, S., Cuciniello, A.C., Caruso, G. (2017). Effects of cultural cycle and nutrient solution electrical conductivity on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of ‘Friariello’pepper grown in hydroponics. Hortic. Sci., 44(2), 91–98.
Barbosa, J.G., Kampf, A.N., Martinez, H.E., Koller, O.C., Bohnen, H. (2000). Chrysanthemum cultivation in expanded clay. I. Effect of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium ratio in the nutrient solution. J. Plant Nutr., 23(9), 1327–1336.
Bolat, I., Kaya, C., Almaca, A., Timucin, S. (2006). Calcium sulfate improves salinity tolerance in rootstocks of plum. J. Plant Nutr., 29(3), 553–564.
Borghesi, E., Carmassi, G., Uguccioni, M.C., Vernieri, P., Malorgio, F. (2013). Effects of calcium and salinity stress on quality of lettuce in soilless culture. J. Plant Nutrition, 36(5), 677–690.
Borgognone, D., Cardarelli, M., Rea, E., Lucini, L., Colla, G. (2014). Salinity source-induced changes in yield, mineral composition, phenolic acids and flavonoids in leaves of artichoke and cardoon grown in floating system. J. Sci. Food Agric., 94(6), 1231–1237.
Butt, M., Ayyub, C.M., Amjad, M., Ahmad, R., (2016). Proline application enhances growth of chilli by improving physiological and biochemical attributes under salt stress. Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 53(1), 43–49.
Cerda, A., Pardines, J., Botella, M.A., Martinez, V. (2008). Effect of potassium on growth, water relations, and the inorganic and organic solute contents for two maize cultivars grown under saline conditions. J. Plant Nutr., 18(4), 839–851.
Erdinc, C. (2018). Changes in ion (K, Ca and Na) regulation, antioxidant enzyme activity and photosynthetic pigment content in melon genotypes subjected to salt stress. A mixture modeling analysis. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 17(1), 165–183.
Fageria, N.K., Gheyi, H.R., Moreira, A. (2011). Nutrient bioavailability in salt affected soils. J. Plant Nutr., 34(7), 945–962.
Golcz, A., Kujawski, P., Markiewicz, B. (2008). Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on the nutritional status of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants and on substrate salinity. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 7(1), 45–52.
Henschke, M. (2017). Response of ornamental grasses cultivated under salinity stress. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 16(1), 95–103.
Kang, J.G., van Iersel, M.W. (2002). Nutrient solution concentration affects growth of subirrigated bedding plants. J. Plant Nutr., 25(2), 387–403.
Kaya, C., Ak, B.E., Higgs, D. (2003). Response of salt-stressed strawberry plants to supplementary calcium nitrate and/or potassium nitrate. J. Plant Nutr., 26(3), 543–560.
Kaya, C., Higgs, D., Ikinci, A. (2002). An experiment to investigate ameliorative effects of potassium sulphate on salt and alkalinity stressed vegetable crops. J. Plant Nutr., 25(11), 2545–2558.
Komosa, A., Górniak, T., (2015). The effect of chloride on yield and nutrient interaction in greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.) grown in rockwool. J. Plant Nutr., 38(3), 355–370.
Kong-Ngern, K., Bunnag, S., Theerakulpisut, P. (2012). Proline, hydrogen peroxide, membrane stability and antioxidant enzyme activity as potential indicators for salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Bot., 8, 54–65.
Lim, C.W., Han, S.W., Hwang, I.S., Kim, D.S., Hwang, B.K., Lee, S.C. (2015). The pepper lipoxygenase CaLOX1 plays a role in osmotic, drought and high salinity stress response. Plant Cell Physiol., 56(5), 930–942.
Mardanluo, S., Souri, M.K., Ahmadi, M., (2018). Plant growth and fruit quality of two pepper cultivars under different potassium levels of nutrient solutions. J. Plant Nutr., 41(12), 1604–1614.
Marschner, P. (2011). Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd ed. Elsevier, London.
Navarro, J.M., Garrido, C., Carvajal, M., Martinez, V. (2002). Yield and fruit quality of pepper plants under sulphate and chloride salinity. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 77(1), 52–57.
Noreen, S., Siddiq, A., Hussain, K., Ahmad, S. and Hasanuzzaman, M. (2017). Foliar application of salicylic acid with salinity stress on physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crop. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 16(2), 57–74.
Parida, A.K., Das, A.B. (2005). Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 60(3), 324–349.
Pereira, G.J.G., Molina, S.M.G., Lea, P.J., Azevedo, R.A. (2002). Activity of antioxidant enzymes in response to cadmium in Crotalaria juncea. Plant Soil, 239(1), 123–132.
Piñero, M.C., Pérez-Jiménez, M., López-Marín, J., del Amor, F.M. (2016). Changes in the salinity tolerance of sweet pepper plants as affected by nitrogen form and high CO2 concentration. J. Plant. Physiol., 200, 18–27.
Qiu, R., Yang, Z., Jing, Y., Liu, C., Luo, X., Wang, Z. (2018). Effects of irrigation water salinity on the growth, gas exchange parameters, and ion concentration of hot pepper plants modified by leaching fractions. HortScience, 53(7), 1050–1055.
Ramadan, M.E., Shalaby, O.A.E.A.E. (2016). Response of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) to potassium and liquorice extract application under saline conditions. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 15(6), 279–290.
Rubio, J.S., Garcia-Sanchez, F., Flores, P., Navarro, J.M., Martinez, V. (2010). Yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper in response to fertilization with Ca and K. Spanish J. Agric. Res., 8(1), 170–177.
Sagi, M., Dovrat, A., Kipnis, T., Lips, H. (1997). Ionic balance, biomass production, and organic nitrogen as affected by salinity and nitrogen source in annual ryegrass. J. Plant Nutr., 20(10), 1291–1316.
Samson, M.E., Fortin, J., Pepin, S., Caron, J. (2016). Impact of potassium sulfate salinity on growth and development of cranberry plants subjected to overhead and subirrigation. Can. J. Soil Sci., 97(1), 20–30.
Serrano, L.L., Penella, C., San Bautista, A., Galarza, S.L., Chover, A.C. (2017). Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress. Spanish J. Agric. Res., 15(3), 15.
Souri, M.K., Hatamian, M. (2018). Aminochelates in plant nutrition: a review. J. Plant Nutr., 41(19), doi:10.1080/01904167.2018.1549671
Souri, M.K., Goodarzizadeh, S., Ahmadi, M., Hatamian, M. (2018). Characteristics of postharvest quality of chrysanthemum cut flower under pretreatment with nitrogenous compounds. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 17(3), 83–90.
Sreenivasulu, N., Grimm, B., Wobus, U., Weschke, W. (2000). Differential response of antioxidant compounds to salinity stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive seedlings of foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Physiol. Plant., 109, 435–442.
Tohidloo, G., Souri, M.K., Eskandarpour, S. (2018). Growth and fruit biochemical characteristics of three strawberry genotypes under different potassium concentrations of nutrient solution. Open Agric., 3, 356–362.
Waters, S., Gilliham, M., Hrmova, M. (2013). Plant high-affinity potassium (HKT) transporters involved in salinity tolerance: structural insights to probe differences in ion selectivity. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14(4), 7660–7680.
Yurtseven, E., Kesmez, G.D., Ünlükara, A. (2005). The effects of water salinity and potassium levels on yield, fruit quality and water consumption of a native central anatolian tomato species (Lycopersicon esculantum). Agric. Water Manag., 78(1–2), 128–135.
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.