Waldemar Treder

Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice

Anna Tryngiel-Gać

Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice

Krzysztof Klamkowski

Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice


Strawberry is propagated vegetatively. Nowadays, traditional bare-root transplants are often replaced with plantlets (plug plants) produced from runner tips. The nutrient level and type of growing medium may influence the quality of planting material. Phosphorus and potassium are important elements for plant metabolism. Insufficient supply of plants with these elements negatively influences the rooting and plant vegetative growth. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of substrate and monopotassium phosphate (MKP) on rooting and quality of strawberry plantlets grown in the greenhouse soilless system. ‘Elsanta’ mother plants were planted in containers and set on a special rack in the greenhouse. Emerging plantlets were set (clipped with metal clips) in
micro-pots filled with peat or coconut substrate. Four concentrations of MKP in the growing medium were applied: 0, 0.22, 0.44, 0.66 g dm-3. Rooting of plantlets was carried out before cutting them off from the mother plants for a period 7, 10 or 14 days. The investigations have showed a very similar dynamics of root formation both in coconut substrate and in peat. A significant effect of the application of monopotassium phosphate on rooting of strawberry plantlets was observed. The optimal dose of MKP depended on the length of rooting period of plantlets. After 7 days of rooting the highest root weight was recorded
in case of plantlets rooted in the growing media supplemented with 0.44 or 0.66 g dm-3 MKP. After 10 and 14 days of rooting even the lowest dose of MKP (0.22 g dm-3) resulted in significantly stronger root growth in comparison with not fertilized control plantlets. MKP also significantly influenced the growth of plantlets after transplanting them into bigger containers. The highest quality plantlets were obtained at the dose 0.44 or 0.66 g MKP dm-3 of substrate.


Fragaria × ananassa, planting material, soilless culture, phosphorus

Barber S.A., 1995. Soil nutrient bioavailability: a mechanistic approach. New York. Wiley-Interscience, 414.
Casimiro I., Marchant A., Bhalerao R.P., Beeckman T., Dhooge S., Swarup R., Graham N., Inzé D., Sandberg G., Casero P.J., Bennett M.J., 2001. Auxin transport promotes Arabidopsis lateral root initiation. Plant Cell, 13, 843–852.
Colón-Carmona A., You R., Haimovitch-Gal T., Doerner P., 1999. Spatio-temporal analysis of mitotic activity with a labile cyclin-GUS fusion protein. Plant J., 20, 503–508.
Dolgun O., 2007. Field performance of organically propagated and grown strawberry plugs and fresh plants. J. Sci. Food Agric., 87, 1364–1367.
Drew M.C., 1975. Comparison of the effects of a localized supply of phosphate, nitrate, ammonium and potassium on the growth of the seminal root system and the shot in barley. New Phytol., 75, 479–490.
Durner E., Poling E.B., Maas J., 2002. Recent advances in strawberry plug transplant technology. HortTech., 12, 545–550.
Ericsson T., 1995. Growth and shoot: root ratio of seedlings in relation to nutrient availability. Plant Soil, 168–169, 205–214 .
Hartman H.T., Kester D.E., Davies F.T., Geneve R.L., 2002. Plant propagation: Principles and Practices, 7th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 363–365.
Hennion B., Bardet A., Longuessere J., 1993. Performance of plug strawberry plants established from unrooted runners. Acta Hort., 348, 237–239.
Hochmuth G., Cantliff D., Chandler C., Stanley C., Bish E., Waldo E., Legard Dan., Duval J., 2006. Containerized strawberry transplants reduce establishment-period water use and enhance early growth and flowering compared with bare-root plants. HortTech., 16, 46–54.
Kramer S., Schultze W., 1985. The effects of the quality of young plants on strawberry yield. Gartenbau, 32, 115–117.
Lennartsson M., 1997. The peat conservation issue and the need for alternatives. In: Proceedings of the IPS International Peat Conference on Peat in Horticulture. Schmilewski, Amsterdam, 112–121.
Lieten F., 1994. Short cut strawberry propagation. The Grower, 17, 35.
Lieten F., 2013. Advances in strawberry substrate culture during the last twenty years in the Netherlands and Belgium. Int. J. Fruit Sci., 13, 84–90.
Lynch J., 1995. Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiol., 1009, 7–13.
Malamy J.E., 2005. Intrinsic and environmental response pathways that regulate root system architecture. Plant Cell Environ., 28, 67–77.
Pritts M.P, Handley D., 1998. Strawberry production guide for the Northeast, Midwest, and Eastern Canada. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension. Ithaca, N.Y., 162 p.
Rengel Z., Marschner P., 2005. Nutrient availability and management in the rhizosphere: exploiting genotype differences. New Phytol., 168, 305–312.
Pérez de Camacaro M.E., Camacaro G.J., Hadley P., Dennett M.D., Battey N.H., Carew J.G., 2004. Effect of plant density and initial crown size on growth, development and yield on strawberry cultivars Elsanta and Bolero. J. Hort. Sci. Biot., 79, 739–746.
Schachtman D.P., Reid R.J., Ayling S.M., 1998. Phosphorus uptake by plants: from soil to cell. Plant Physiol., 116, 447–453.
Słowik K., Włodek L., 1973. Wpływ wieloletniego nawożenia mineralnego na rozmieszczenie korzeni porzeczki czarnej i czerwonej. Prace ISK, 17, 117–130.
Takeda F., Perkins-Veazie P., Swartz H.J., Hokanson S., 2006. Strawberry transplant production and performance in annual plasticulture system. Acta Hort., 708, 213–216.
Treder W., Klamkowski K., Tryngiel-Gac A., 2007. Investigation on greenhouse hydroponic system for production of strawberry potted plantlets. Acta Hort., 761, 115–119.
Vance C.P., Uhde-Stone C., Allan D.L., 2003. Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource. New Phytol., 157, 423–447.
Zhang B., Chen Q., Luo S., Zhang C., Yang Q., Liu K., 2012. Effects of NPK deficiencies on root architecture and growth of cucumber. Int. J. Agr. Biol., 14, 145–148.


Waldemar Treder 
Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice
Anna Tryngiel-Gać 
Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice
Krzysztof Klamkowski 
Research Institute of Horticulture, Skierniewice



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)