Anna Heród

Department of Ornamental Plants and Garden Art, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 29-Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland

Małgorzata Malik

University of Agriculture in Krakow


Performance and appearance of vertical gardens are affected by plant quality, which is why creating conditions for their proper growth is crucial. Insufficient amount of light inside buildings significantly limits plant development, especially in the autumn and winter in the northern hemisphere. The objective of this study was to investigate physiological and morphological quality of plant species, Asplenium, Chlorophytum and Philodendron, in an indoor vertical garden exposed to two levels of daily light integral (DLI). Higher DLI level (1.1-1.7 mol m−2 day‑1) improved plant diameter, height, leaf length and width, leaf area, total area of leaf blades, dry weight, and carotenoid content, however did not affected leaf fresh weight and leaf number. Chlorophytum and Asplenium were particularly responsive to natural light supplementation and were distinguished by the best growth habit and compactness.


green walls, pot plant development, PPFD, shade tolerant plants, vertical systems

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Anna Heród 
Department of Ornamental Plants and Garden Art, University of Agriculture in Krakow, 29-Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6028-1578
Małgorzata Malik 
University of Agriculture in Krakow



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