Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus CAUSING MIXED INFECTION IN PROTECTED EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena) CROPS IN TURKEY

Hakan Fidan

Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Antalya, Turkey

Pelin Sarıkaya

Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Antalya, Turkey


Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an important source of food for people. Eggplant cultivations, located in the Mediterranean region province of Antalya, corresponds to 20% of the total eggplant production in Turkey. In Antalya province, yellowing type symptoms were observed in eggplant areas and it was found that these symptoms were not caused by fungal or bacterial cause. The yellowing symptoms characteristic for Solanaceae family, such as tomato and pepper, are also observed in the same family of eggplant. Total nucleic acids were obtained from infected eggplants were tested by RT-PCR/PCR with specific primers of TYLCV (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus) and ToCV (Tomato chlorosis virus). Their PCR amplicons were directly sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Additionally, TYLCV infected plants were determined in the strain level. This study is the first record of Tomato chlorosis virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus causing infection in eggplant in Antalya province and characterized by yellowing type symptom in infected plant.


eggplant, survey, virus, yellowing type symptoms

Fidan, H., Karacaoglu, M., Koc, G., & Caglar, B. K. (2019). Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) strains and epidemiological role of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotypes on tomato agroecology in Turkey. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(4), 9131–9144.

Anfoka, G., Haj Ahmad, F., Abhary, M., Hussein, A. (2009) Detection and molecular characterization of viruses associated with tomato yellow leaf curl disease in cucurbit crops in Jordan. Plant Pathol., 58(4), 754–762. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02060.x

Bayhan, E., Ulusoy, M.R., Brown, J.K. (2006). Host species, distribution, and natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci “B biotype” (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Turkey. J. Pestic. Sci., 79, 233–240. DOI: 10.1007/s10340-006-0139-4

Brown, J.K., Czosnek, H. (2002). Whitefly Transmitted Viruses. Academic Press, New York, 65–100.

Colak-Ates, A., Fidan, H., Ozarslandan, A., Ata, A. (2018). Determination of the Resistance of Certain Eggplant Lines Against Fusarium Wilt, Potato Y Potyvirusand Root-Knot Nematode Using Molecular and Classic Methods. Fresenius Environ. Bull., 27(11), 7446–7453.

Dash, S.P., Singh, J., Sharma, D. (2019) Morphological characterization of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) germplasm. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 8(2), 1574–1578.

FAO (2016). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available: [date of access: 19.05.2016].

Fonseca, M.E.N., Boiteux, L.S, Lima, M.F, Mendonça, J.L., Costa, A.F., Fontes, M.G., Costa, H., González-Arcos, M. (2016). First Report of Tomato chlorosis virus Infecting Eggplant and Scarlet Eggplant in Brazil. APS Publications Disease notes. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-09-15-1087-PDN

Fidan, H., Karacaoğlu, M., Koç, G., Caglar, B.K. (2019). Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) Strains and Epidemiological Role of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodıdae) Biotypes on Tomato Agroecology in Turkey. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., 17(4), 9131–9144. DOI: 10.15666/aeer/17-4

Green, S.K., Tsai, W.S., Shih, S.L., Rezaian, M.A., Duangsong, U. (2003). Molecular characterization of a new Begomovirus associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl and Eggplant yellow mosaic diseases in Thailand. Plant Dis., 87, 446–446. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.4.446A [date of access: 21.09.2020]

Jones, D.R. (2003). Plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies. Eur. J. Plant Pathol., 109, 195–219. DOI: 10.1023/A:1022846630513

Kamberoğlu, M.A., Calıskan, A.F., Alan, B. (2009). First Report of Tomato Spoted Wilt Virus on Eggplant in Turkey. Edizioni Ets Pisa.

Kil, E.J., Kim, S., Lee, Y.J., Byun, H.S., Park, J., Seo, H., Kim, C.-S., Shim, J.-K., Lee, J.-H., Kim, J.-K., Lee, K.-Y., Choi, H.-S., Lee, S. (2016). Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-IL): a seed-transmissible geminivirus in tomatoes. Sci. Rep., 6, 19013. DOI: 10.1038/srep19013

Konjević, A., Milovac, Z., Kontsedalov, S., Kanakala, S., Ghanim, M. (2018). First interception of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Q biotype) in Serbia. J. Appl. Entomol., 142, 627–631. DOI: 10.1111/jen.12508

Navas-Castillo, J., Fiallo-Olivé, E., Sánchez-Campos, S. (2011). Emerging virus diseases transmitted by whiteflies. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 49, 219–248. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-072910-095235

Osman, M., Baloglu, S. (2018). Determination of Eggplant Viruses in Eastern Mediterranean Regıon. Ç.Ü J. Sci. Engin. Sci., 35(1) [in Turkish].

Papayiannis, L.C., Brown, J.K., Seraphides, N.A., Hadjistylli, M., Ioannou, N., Katis, N.I. (2009). A real-time PCR assay to differentiate the B and Q biotypes of the Bemisia tabaci complex in Cyprus. Bull. Entomol. Res., 99(6), 573–582.

Sao, A., Mehta, N. (2010). Heterosis and Inbreeding Depression for Fruit Yield and its Components in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Dirasat. Agric. Sci., 37(1), 88–91.

Satar, G., Ulusoy, M.R. (2016): Biotype detection of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) populations collected from Mediterranean Region Türk. Entomol. Bült., 6(3), 205–212.

Sulley, S. (2016). Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) izolatlarının örtü protein gen bölgesinin moleküler olarak belirlenmesi [Molecular determination of the coat protein gene region of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) isolates]. Ankara Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Bitki Koruma Anabilim Dalı Yüksek Lisans Tezi Ankara. 86 sayfa [in Turkish].

TUIK – Turkish Statistical Institute (2018). [date of access: 19.05.2016; in Turkish].

Ulusoy, M.R., Karut, K., Çalişkan, A.F. (2012). Faunistic studies on Aleyrodidae species of Aegen Region. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni, 2, 251–267.

Vaira, A.M., Accotto, G.P., Vecchiati, M., Bragaloni, M. (2002). Tomato Infectious Chlorosis Virus Causes Leaf Yellowing and Reddening of Tomato in Italy. Phytoparasitica, 30(3), 290–294. DOI: 10.1007/BF03039998



Hakan Fidan 
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Antalya, Turkey
Pelin Sarıkaya 
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Plant Protection Department, Antalya, Turkey



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)