EFFECTS OF INTERCROPPING SYSTEM AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON LAND EQUIVALENT RATIO, YIELD AND MINERAL CONTENT OF BROCCOLI
To determine effects of intercropping broccoli with onion and their correspondence to different nitrogen concentrations on growth, yield and nutrient contents, field studies were conducted for two years. In intercropping plots, onion sets were planted between broccoli rows. Broccoli and onion plants were also grown as monocrops. Nitrogen was applied at three different rates (160, 200 and 240 kg ha–1) in both mono and intercrop plots of broccoli. The overall efficiency of intercropping was evaluated by employing land equivalent ratios (LERs). Cropping systems significantly did not affect chlorophyll reading value, yield and other parameters observed. However, nitrogen application rate had significant effect on these parameters. The highest values of these parameters were generally observed in 240 kg ha–1 nitrogen application. Macro and microelement content of broccoli leaves was affected neither by cropping systems nor by nitrogen fertilization except for N, Mn, Zn and NO3. Intercropping increased plant height but decreased the plant diameter of onion. There wasn’t significant decrease in plant weight of intercropped onion at 240 kg ha–1 nitrogen treatment when compared to monocropping. Broccoli intercropped with onion at 240 kg ha–1 nitrogen had the highest LER values, showing that intercropping practice could be more productive than monocropping especially in case of 240 kg ha–1 nitrogen application.
intercropping; nitrogen fertilization; broccoli; onion; yield; land equivalent ratios (LERs)
Anjana, S.U., Iqbal, M. (2007). Nitrate accumulation in plants, factors affecting the process, and human health implications. A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev., 27(1), 45–57. DOI: 10.1051/agro:2006021
Atanasova, E. (2008). Effect of nitrogen sources on the nitrogenous forms and accumulation of amino acid in head cabbage. Plant Soil Environ., 54(2), 66.
Babik, I., Elkner, K. (2002). The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on yield and quality of broccoli. In: Workshop Towards and Ecologically Sound Fertilisation in Field Vegetable Production. Acta Hortic. 571, 33–43. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.571.2
Belec, C., Villeneuve, S., Coulombe, J., Tremblay, N. (2001). Influence of nitrogen fertilization on yield, hollow stem incidence and sap nitrate concentration in broccoli. Can. J. Plant Sci., 81(4), 765–772. DOI: 10.4141/P00-108
Cataldo, D.A., Maroon, M., Schrader, L.E., Youngs, V.L. (1975). Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 6(1), 71–80. DOI: 10.1080/00103627509366547
Eskandari, H. (2011). Intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba): Effects of complementarity and competition of intercrop components in resource consumption on dry matter production and weed growth. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10(77), 17755–17762. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.2250
Eskandari, H., Ghanbari, A. (2009). Intercropping of maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as whole-crop forage: effect of different planting pattern on total dry matter production and maize forage quality. Not. Bot. Horti Agrobot. Cluj-Napoca, 37(2), 152–155. DOI: 10.15835/nbha3723230
Greenwood, D.J., Lemaire, G., Gosse, G., Cruz, P., Draycott, A., Neeteson, J.J. (1990). Decline in percentage N of C3 and C4 crops with increasing plant mass. Ann. Bot., 66(4), 425–436. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a088044
Guler, S. (2005). Sustainable Nitrogen Usage In Vegetable Production. J. Atatürk Univ. Agric. Fac., 36(2), 209–215.
Guvenc, I., Yildirim, E. (2006). Increasing productivity with intercropping systems in cabbage production. J. Sustain. Agric., 28(4), 29–44. DOI: 10.1300/J064v28n04_04
Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Jensen, E.S. (2005). Facilitative root interactions in intercrops. In Root Physiology: from Gene to Function (pp. 237–250). Springer,
Karlidag, H., Yildirim, E. (2007). The effects of nitrogen fertilization on intercropped strawberry and broad bean. J. Sustain. Agric., 29(4), 61–74. DOI: 10.1300/J064v29n04_06
Karlidag, H., Yildirim, E. (2009a). Strawberry intercropping with vegetables for proper utilization of space and resources. J. Sustain. Agric., 33(1), 107–116. DOI: 10.1080/10440040802587462
Karlıdağ, H., Yıldırım, E. (2009b). The effect of vegetable intercropping on plant growth, yield, land equivalent ratio and economic income in sapling growing. Yüzüncü Yıl Univ. J. Agric. Sci. (Turkey), 19(2), 71–77.
Li, L., Tilman, D., Lambers, H., Zhang, F.S. (2014). Plant diversity and overyielding: insights from belowground facilitation of intercropping in agriculture. New Phytol., 203(1), 63–69. DOI: 10.1111/nph.12778
Mahant, H.D., Patil, S.J., Bhalerao, P.P., Gaikwad, S.S., Kotadia, H.R. (2012). Economics and land equivalent ratio of different intercrops in banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) cv. Grand Naine under drip irrigation. Asian J. Hortic., 7(2), 330–332.
Midmore, D.J. (1993). Agronomic modification of resource use and intercrop productivity. Field Crops Res., 34(3–4), 357–380. DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(93)90122-4
Mobasser, H.R., Vasirimehr, M.R., Rigi, K. (2014). Effect of intercropping on resources use, weed management and forage quality. IJPAES, 4, 706–713.
Morris, R.A., Garrity, D.P. (1993). Resource capture and utilization in intercropping; non-nitrogen nutrients. Field Crops Res., 34(3–4), 319–334. DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(93)90120-C
Mourao, I., Brito, M. (2001). Effects of Direct film crop cover and top dress nitrogen on earliness and yield of broccoli crop (Brassica oleracea var. Italica Plenk). Int. Conf. on Environmental Problems Associated with Nitrogen Fertilisation of Field Grown Vegetable Crops. Acta Hortic. 563, 103–109. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2001.563.12
Oad, F.C., Siddiqui, M.H., Buriro, U.A. (2007). Agronomic and Economic Interference Between Cotton Gossypium
hirsutum L. and Pigeon Pea Cajanus cajan L. J. Agron., 6(1), 199. DOI: 10.3923/ja.2007.199.203
Rehman, H., Ali, A., Waseem, M., Tanveer, A., Tahir, M., Nadeem, M.A., Zamir, M.I. (2010). Impact of nitrogen application on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.,) grown alone and in combination with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). Am.-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 7(1), 43–47.
Santos, R.H., Gliessman, S.R., Cecon, P.R. (2002). Crop interactions in broccoli intercropping. Biol. Agric. Hortic., 20(1), 51–75. DOI: 10.1080/01448765.2002.9754948
Schulte auf’m Erley, G., Ambebe, T.F., Worku, M., Bänzinger, M., Horst., W.J. (2010). Photosynthesis and leaf-nitrogen dynamics during leaf senescence of tropical maize cultivars in hydroponics in relation to N efficiency in the field. Plant Soil, 330, 313–328.
Shaker-Koohi, S., Nasrollahzadeh, S., Raei, Y. (2014). Evaluation of chlorophyll value, protein content and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)/mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) intercropping. Int. J. Biosci. – IJB, 4(8), 136–143.
Uher, A., Mezeyová, I., Hegedűsová, A., Šlosár, M. (2017). Impact of nutrition on the quality and quantity of cauliflower florets. Potravinárstvo/ Slov. J. Food Sci., 11(1), 113–119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5219/723
Uher, A., Šlosár, M., Lošák, T., Hlušek, J. (2014). The effect of differentiated nutrition on the content of antioxidants in broccoli. Acta Univ. Agric. Silvic. Mendel. Brun., 62, 561–564. DOI: 10.11118/actaun201462030561.
Unlu, H., Unlu, H.O., Dasgan, H.Y., Solmaz, I., Sari, N., Kartal, E., Uzen, N. (2008). Effects of intercropping on plant nutrient uptake in various vegetables species. Asian J. Chem., 20(6), 4781–4791.
Wang, Z.H., Li, S.X., Malhi, S. (2008). Effects of fertilization and other agronomic measures on nutritional quality of crops. J. Sci. Food Agric., 88(1), 7–23. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3084
Yildirim, E., Guvenc, I. (2005). Intercropping based on cauliflower: more productive, profitable and highly sustainable. Eur. J. Agron., 22(1), 11–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.eja.2003.11.003
Yildirim, E., Turan, M. (2013). Growth, yield and mineral content of broccoli intercropped with lettuce. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 23(3), 919–922.
Yildirim, E., Guvenc, I., Turan, M., Karatas, A. (2007). Effect of foliar urea application on quality, growth, mineral uptake and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., var. italica). Plant Soil Environ., 53(3), 120–128.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
The author signs a statement on the originality of the work and the contribution of individuals.
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.