Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz

University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Sylwia Okoń

University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Tomasz Ociepa

University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Beata Król

University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland


The study determined the morphological and genetic diversity among nine cultivars of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.): ‘Almira’, ‘Asia’, ‘Chocolate’, ‘Citaro’, ‘Granada’, ‘Grapefruit’, ‘Multimentha’, ‘Swiss’ and ‘Variegata’. The leaves of the peppermint cultivars were characterized by substantial variation in morphology
and size. The leaves of ‘Multimenth’, ‘Grapefruit‘ and ‘Swiss’ were largest, and those of ‘Swiss’ were considerably elongated. The ‘Almira’ cultivar had the smallest leaves. Although similar leaf morphology was observed in ‘Asia’, ‘Citaro’ and ‘Chocolate’, in ‘Grapefruit’ and ‘Multimentha’ and in ‘Swiss’ and ‘Variegata’, no two cultivars were the same in this respect. Differentiation of tested peppermint cultivars were also confirmed at genetic level. Genetic diversity among tested cultivars ranged from 0.388 to 0.846. The most different were cultivars Almira and Citaro.


DNA polymorphism, leaf morphology, RAPD

Anderson, J.A., Churchill, G.A., Autrique, J.E., Sorells, M.E., Tanksley, S.D. (1993). Optimizing parental selection for genetic-linkage maps. Genome, 36, 181–186.
Belaj, A., Trujillo, I., de la Rosa, R., Rallo, L., Giménez, M.J., 2001. Polymorphism and discrimination capacity of randomly amplified polymorphic markers in olive
germplasm bank. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 126(1), 64–71.
British Pharmacopoeia (2015). Peppermint leaf. Peppermint oil. Concentrated peppermint emulsion. Peppermint essence. Peppermint spirit. Peppermint leaf dry
extract, 317–321.
Chen, L., Gao, Q., Chen, D., Xu, C. (2005). The use of RAPD markers for detecting genetic diversity, relationship and molecular identification of Chinese elite tea genetic resources [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] preserved in a tea germplasm repository. Biodivers. Conserv., 14, 1433–1444.
Emadpour, E., Hosseini, R., Beiramizadeh, E. (2009). A high genetic diversity revealed between commercial rose cultivars by RAPD-PCR technique. The 6th National Biotechnology Congress of Iran 13–15 Aug, Milad Tower Conference Hall, Tehran, Iran.
Erum, S., Naeemullah, M., Masood, S. (2012). Phenotypic variation among Mentha spp. Pakistan J. Agric. Res. 25(1), 55–62
European Pharmacopoeia, 8th ed. (2014). Peppermint leaf, peppermint leaf dry extract, peppermint oil, 1350–1353.
Fenwick, A.L.S., Ward, M. (2001). Use of randomly amplified DNA markers for cultivar identification in mint. HortScience, 36, 761–764.
Grisi, M.C.M., Silva, D.B., Alves, R.B.N., Gracindo, L.A.M.B., Vieira, R.F. (2006). Evaluation of mint genotypes (Mentha spp.) under natural conditions of the Federal District Brazil. Rev. Bras. Pl. Med., Botucatu, 8(4), 33–39.
Gupta, P.K., Varshney, R.K. (2013). Cereal Genomics II. Springer-Verlag GmbH.
Gupta, P., Varshney, R.K., Sharma P.C., Ramesh, B. (1999). Molecular markers and their applications in wheat breeding. Plant Breed., 118, 369–390.
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D. (2001). Past: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol. Electron., 4(1), 4, 1–9.
Iscan, G., Kirimer, N., Kürkcüoğlu, M., Baser, K.H., Demirci, F. (2002). Antimicrobial screening of Mentha piperita essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 3943–3946.
Kabir, S., Tahira, R., Khan, M.F., Naeemullah, M., Jamal, A. (2014). Molecular characterization of genetic diversity of mint gene pool through RAPD markers. Int. J. Agric. Innov. Res., 2(4), 2319–1473.
Khanuja, S.P.S., Shasany, A.K., Srivastava, A., Kumar, S. (2000). Assessment of genetic relationships in Mentha species. Euphytica, 111, 121–125.
Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, A., Jabłońska-Trypuć, A., Taraseviciene, Z., Kubat-Sikorska, A. (2016). Characteristics and functional properties of mint’s raw materials. Pol. J. Commod. Sci., 1(46), 93–105.
Klimko, M., Korzun, S., Bykowska, J. (2015). Comparative morphology and anatomy of the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. cultivars. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 14(4), 169–189.
Leaf Architecture Working Group (1999). Manual of Leaf Architecture. Morphological description and categorization of dicotyledonous and net-veined onocotyledonous angiosperms. Department of Paleobiology Smithsonian Institution, 65 pp.
Ludwiczuk, A., Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, A., Sawicki, R., Golus, J., Ginalska, G. (2015). Essential oil composition of selected Mentha species and cultivars and their bacteriostatic activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Nat. Vol. Essent. Oils, 2(3), 31.
Ludwiczuk, A., Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, A., Sawicki, R., Golus, J., Ginalska, G. (2016). Essential oils of some Mentha species and cultivars, their chemistry and bacteriostatic
activity. Nat. Prod. Commun., 11, 1015–1018.
Maffei, M., Mucciarelli, M, Scannerini, S. (1994), Are leaf area index (LAI) and flowering related to oil productivity in peppermint? Flavour Fragr. J., 9, 119–124.
Marotti, M., Piccaglia, R., Giovanelli, E. (1996). Differences in essential oil composition of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) italian cultivars related to morphological
characteristics. J. Agric. Food Chem., 44, 3926–3929.
McKay, D.L., Blumberg, J.B. (2006), A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother. Res. 20, 619–633
Nei, M., Li, W.H. (1979). Mathematical model for studying genetic variation in terms of restriction endonucleases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 76, 5269–5273.
Okoń, S., Paczos-Grzęda, E., Łoboda, M., Sugier, D. (2014). Identification of genetic diversity among Arnica montana L. genotypes using RAPD markers. Acta
Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 13(4), 63–71.
Okoń, S., Surmacz-Magdziak, A. (2011). The use of RAPD markers for detecting genetic similarity and molecular identification of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch.) genotypes. Herba Pol., 57(1), 38–47.
Pharmacopoeia Polonica X (2014). Menthae piperitae folium, 4276.
Prakash, S., Van Staden, J. (2007). Assessment of genetic relationships between Rhus L. species using RAPD markers. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., 54(1), 7–11.
Prevost, A., Wilkinson, M.J. (1999). A new system of comparing PCR primers applied to ISSR fingerprinting of potato cultivars. Theor. Appl. Genet., 98(1), 107–112.
Reynders, S., Bollereau, P. (1994). Characterization of genetic diversity in Rosa by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Acta Hort. 424, 253–260.
Smolik, M., Rzepka-Plevens, D., Jadczak, D., Sękowska, A. (2007), Morphological and genetic variability of chosen Mentha species. Herba Pol. 53 (3), 90–97.
Soheila, M., Behrouz, S., Khorshid, R. (2006). Genetic variation in Iranian mints on the bases of RAPD analysis. Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 9(10), 1898–1904.
Straumite, E., Kruma, Z., Galoburda, R. (2015). Pigments in mint leaves and stems. Agron. Res., 13(4), 1104–1111.
Šarić-Kundalić, B., Fialová, S., Dobeš, C., Ölzant, S., Tekeľová, D., Grančai, D., Reznicek, G., Saukel, J. (2009). Multivariate numerical taxonomy of mentha species, hybrids, varieties and cultivars. Sci. Pharm., 77, 851–876.
Tarhan, S., Telci, Đ., Tuncay, M.T., Polatci, H. (2010). Product quality and energy consumption when drying peppermint by rotary drum dryer. Ind. Crops Prod., 32(3), 420–427.
Tatikonda, L., Wani, S.P., Kannan, S., Beerelli, N., Sreedevi, T.K., Hoisington, D.A., Devi, P., Varshney, R.K. (2009). AFLP-based molecular characterization of an elite germplasm collection of Jatropha curcas L., a biofuel plant. Plant Sci., 176(4), 505–513.
Tsukaya, H. (2006). Mechanism of leaf-shape determination. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57, 477–496.
Waugh, R., Powell, W. (1992). Using RAPD markers for crop improvement. Trends Biotechnol., 10, 186–194.
Williams, J.G.K., Kubelik, A.R., Libak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A., Tingey, S.V. (1990). DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers.
Nucl. Acids Res., 18, 6531–6535.


Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz 
University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Sylwia Okoń 
University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Tomasz Ociepa 
University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Beata Król 
University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)