Sebnem Kusvuran

Cankiri Karatekin University Kizilirmak Vocational High School, 18100, Cankırı, Turkey

H. Yildiz Dasgan


Drought stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses that cause reduction in plant growth, development and yield in many parts of the world. The plants have developed different morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms to withstand drought stress. The present study investigated different levels
(S1: 100% of field capacity – Control; S2: 50% of field capacity –moderate stress; S3: 0% of field capacitysevere stress) of drought stress on oxidative damages and variations in antioxidants in the two tomato genotypes Tom-163 (drought-sensitive), Tom-143 (drought-tolerant) to elucidate the antioxidative protective
mechanism governing differential drought tolerance. The shoot fresh weight, shoot height, leaf number and area, relative water content (RWC) were reduced with different level of drought stress. However, this reduction clearly occurred in Tom-163 (sensitive). Antioxidative enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase,
catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutation reductase had a greater increase in tolerant genotypes (Tom-143) than in sensitive ones (Tom-163). The level of lipid peroxidation was measured by estimating malondialdehyde content. Lipid peroxidation increased with rising drought level in both genotypes although Tom-143 was the least affected when compared with the Tom-163. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased in tomato genotypes under S2 and S3 conditions. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were attained in Tom-143 subjected to S3 treatment. These results indicated that antioxidant defense systems, osmolytes and secondary metabolites play important roles in tomato during drought stress. 


CAT, flavonoid, MDA, proline, SOD, tomato

Anjum, S.A., Xie, X.Y., Wang, L.C., Saleem, M.F., Man, C., Lei, W. (2011). Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. Afr. J. Agri. Res., 6(9), 2026–2032.
Asada, K. (1999). The water-water cycle in chloroplasts: scavenging of active oxygens and dissipation of excess photons. Ann. Rev. Plant Biol., 50(1), 601–639.
Basu, S., Roychoudhury, A., Paromita Saha, P., Sengupta, D.N. (2010). Differential antioxidative responses of indica rice cultivars to drought stress. Plant Growth Reg.,
60, 51–59.
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., Teare, I.D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil, 39(1), 205–207.
Bennett, R.N., Wallsgrove, R.M. (1994). Secondary metabolites in plant defence mechanisms. New Phytol., 127, 617–33.
Chaitanya, K.V., Sundar, D., Masilamani, S., Reddy, A.R. (2002). Variation in heat stress-induced antioxidant enzyme activities among three mulberry cultivars. Plant
Growth Reg., 36(2), 175–180.
Dawood, M.G., Taie, H.A.A., Nassar, R.M.A., Abdelhamid, M.T., Schmidhalter, U. (2014). The changes induced in the physiological, biochemical and anatomical
characteristics of Vicia faba by the exogenous application of proline under seawater stress. South Afr. J. Bot., 93, 54–63.
Dixit, V., Pandey, V., Shyam, R. (2001). Differential antioxidative responses to cadmium in roots and leaves of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Azad). J. Exp. Bot., 52, 1101–1109.
Dolatabadian, A., Sanavy, S.A.M.M., Chashmi, N.A. (2008). The effects of foliar application of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation of canola (Brassica napus L.) under conditions of salt stress. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 194(3), 206–213.
El-Tayeb, M.A. (2006). Differential response of two Vicia faba cultivars to drought: growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, organic solutes, catalase and peroxidase activity.
Acta Agron. Hung., 54, 25–37.
Ghorbanli, M., Gafarabad, M., Amirkian, T.A.N.N.A.Z., Mamaghani, B.A. (2013). Investigation of proline, total protein, chlorophyll, ascorbate and dehydroascorbate
changes under drought stress in Akria and Mobil tomato cultivars. Iran J. Plant Physiol., 3(2), 651–658.
Heath, R.L., Packer, L. (1968). Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 125(1),
Hernández, I., Alegre, L., Munné-Bosch, S. (2004). Drought-induced changes in flavonoids and other low molecular weight antioxidants in Cistus clusii grown under Mediterranean field conditions. Tree Physiol., 24(11), 1303–1311.
Hertog, M.G.L., Hollman, P.C.H., Katan, M.B., Kromhout, D. (1993). Intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in the Netherlands.
Nutr. Cancer, 20, 21–29.
Jaleel, C.A., Riadh, K., Gopi, R., Manivannan, P., Inès, J., Al-Juburi, H.J., Panneerselvam, R., (2009). Antioxidant defense responses: physiological plasticity in higher plants under abiotic constraints. Acta Physiol. Plant., 31(3), 427–436.
Jia, X., Sun, C., Li, G., Li, G., Chen, G. (2015). Effects of progressive drought stress on the physiology, antioxidative enzymes and secondary metabolites of Radix
Astragali. Acta Physiol. Plant., 37(12), 1–14.
Karanlik S. (2001). Resistance to salinity in different wheat genotypes and physiological mechanisms involved in salt resistance. Ph.D. Thesis. Institute of Natural and
Applied Sciences, University of Cukurova, Adana, 122 pp (in Turkish).
Keyvan, S. (2010). The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. J. Anim.
Plant Sci, 8(3), 1051–1060.
Kusvuran, S., Ellialtioglu, S., Polat, Z. (2013). Antioxidative enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and proline accumulation in the callus tissues of salt and drought tolerant
and sensitive pumpkin genotypes under chilling stress. Hort. Envir. Biotech., 54(4), 319–325.
Kusvuran, S., Kıran, S., Ellialtıoğlu, Ş.Ş. (2016). Antioxidant enzyme activities and abiotic stress tolerance relationship in vegetable crops. In: Abiotic and biotic stress
in plants – recent advances and future perspectives, Shanker, A.K., Shanker, Ch. (eds). InTech, pp. 481–506.
Lakzayi, M., Sabbagh, E., Rigi, K., Keshtehgar, A. (2014). Effect of salicylic acid on activities of antioxidant enzymes, flowering and fruit yield and the role on reduce of
drought stress. Int. J. Farming All. Sci., 3(9), 980–987.
Latif, F., Ullah, F., Mehmood, S., Khattak, A., Khan, A.U., Khan, S., Husain, I. (2016). Effects of salicylic acid on growth and accumulation of phenolics in Zea mays L.
under drought stress. Acta Agric. Scand. Sec. B Soil Plant Sci., 66(4), 325–332.
Li, Z., Peng, Y., Ma, X. (2013). Different response on drought tolerance and post-drought recovery between the small-leafed and the large-leafed white clover (Trifolium
repens L.) associated with antioxidative enzyme protection and lignin metabolism. Acta Physiol. Plant., 35(1), 213–222.
Liu, Z.J., Zhang, X.L., Bai, J.G., Suo, B.X., Xu, P.L., Wang, L. (2009). Exogenous paraquat changes antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in drought-stressed cucumber leaves. Sci. Hort., 121, 138–143.
Lopez‐Huertas, E., Charlton, W.L., Johnson, B., Graham, I.A., Baker, A. (2000). Stress induces peroxisome biogenesis genes. The EMBO J., 19(24), 6770–6777.
Mafakheri, A., Siosemardeh, A., Bahramnejad, B., Struik, P.C., Sohrabi, Y. (2010). Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea
cultivars. Austral. J. Crop Sci., 4(8), 580.
Mansori, M., Chernane, H., Latique, S., Benaliat, A., Hsissou, D., El Kaoua, M. (2015). Seaweed extract effect on water deficit and antioxidative mechanisms in bean
plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. Appl. Phycol., 27(4), 1689–1698.
Medina-Juárez, L.A., Molina-Quijada, D.M., Del Toro-Sánchez, C.L., González-Aguilar, G.A., Gámez-Meza, N. (2012). Antioxidant activity of peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. Interciencia, 37(8), 588–593.
Mittiova, V., Tal, M., Volokita, M., Guy, M. (2002). Salt stress induces up-regulation of an efficient chloroplast antioxidant system in the salt-tolerant wild tomato species
Lycopersicon pennelii but not in the cultivated species. Physiol. Plant., 115(3), 393–400.
Molina-Quijada, D.M.A., Medina-Juárez, L.A., González-Aguilar, G.A, Robles-Sánchez, R.M. and Gámez-Meza, N. (2010). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity
of table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) skin from northwest Mexico. Cien. Tec. Aliment., 8(1), 57–63.
Pugnaire, F.I., Serrano, L., Pardos, J. (1999). Constraints by water stress on plant growth. Handb. Plant Crop Stress, 2, 271–283.
Ramakrishna, A., Ravishankar, G.A. (2011). Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Signal. Behav., 6, 1720–1731.
Rosales, M.A., Ocampo, E., Rodríguez-Valentín, R., Olvera-Carrillo, Y., Acosta-Gallegos, J., Covarrubias, A.A. (2012). Physiological analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars uncovers characteristics related to terminal drought resistance. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 56, 24–34.
Sánchez-Rodríguez, E., Rubio-Wilhelmi, M., Cervilla, L.M., Blasco, B., Rios, J.J., Rosales, A., Romero, L., Ruiz, J.M. (2010). Genotypic differences in some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress under moderate drought in tomato plants. Plant Sci., 178(1), 30–40.
Sapeta, H., Costa, J.M., Lourenco, T., Maroco, J., Van der Linde, P., Oliveira, M.M. (2013). Drought stress response in Jatropha curcas: growth and physiology. Environ.
Exp. Bot., 85, 76–84.
Sen, A. (2012). Oxidative stress studies in plant tissue culture. Antioxidant Enzym., 3, 59–88.
Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol., 299, 152–178.
Slabbert, M.M., Krüger, G.H.J. (2014). Antioxidant enzyme activity, proline accumulation, leaf area and cell membrane stability in water stressed Amaranthus leaves. South Afr. J. Bot., 95, 123–128.
Yuan, G.F., Jia, C.G., Li, Z., Sun, B., Zhang, L.P., Liu, N., Wang, Q.M. (2010). Effect of brassinosteroids on drought resistance and abscisic acid concentration in tomato under water stress. Sci. Hort., 126(2), 103–108.


Sebnem Kusvuran 
Cankiri Karatekin University Kizilirmak Vocational High School, 18100, Cankırı, Turkey
H. Yildiz Dasgan 



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)