Yasin Ozdemir

Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova, Turkey

Mehmet Emin Akcay

Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova, Turkey

Sezai Ercisli

Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey

Mehmet Ozkan

Food Control Laboratory, Tekirdag, Turkey

Ugur Ozyurt

Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey


Some important physical (fruit external color, flesh firmness, fruit size, fruit weight, fruit volume, stone cell), chemical (ash, pH, soluble solid content, sugars, titrata-ble acidity), sensorial (appearance, firmness, sweetness, grittiness, juiciness and overall quality) and bioactive (antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds, total phenolic content, vitamin C) characteristics of eleven local and one standard pear cultivar were investigat-ed. All cultivars were found in national pear repository in Ataturk Horticultural Central Research Institute in Turkey. Fruit weight of pears was between 56.80 g (‘Kirmizi Biber’) and 128.94 g (‘Erkenci Uzun Sap’). Results showed that ‘Bağ’ cultivar had the highest sensorial scores (8.4 overall quality) and antioxidant capacity (21.44 mg ascorbic acid equivalent∙g-1). Stone cell were found between 63.65 (‘Gümüşhane’) and 81.65 mg dry weight∙g-1 (‘Maslovka’). The cultivar ‘Orak’ showed the highest chlorogenic acid (185.98 mg∙kg-1) and epicatechin (108.26 mg∙kg-1) content.


pear, phytochemicals, stone cell, bioactive content

Adeniji, T.A., Sanni, L.O., Barimalaa, I.S., Hart, AD. (2007). Nutritional composition of five new Musa hybrid cultivars: implications for adoption in human nutrition. Fruits, 62, 135–142.
Akçay, M.E., Burak, M., Kazan, K., Yüksel, C., Mutaf, F., Bakir, M., Ayanoğlu, H., Ergül, A. (2014). Genetic analysis of Anatolian pear germplasm by simple sequence repeats. Ann. Appl. Biol., 164(3), 441–452.
Alizadeh, K., Fatholahi, S., Da Silva, A.T. (2015). Variation in the fruit characteristics of local pear (Pyrus spp.) in the Northwest of Iran. Genet. Res. Crop. Evol., 62, 635–641.
Amiot, M.J., Tacchini, M., Aubert, S.Y., Oleszekz, W. (1995). Influence of cultivar, maturity stage, and storage conditions on phenolic composition and enzymatic browning of pear fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43(1), 132–137.
Bai, J., Wu, P., Manthey, J., Goodner, K., Baldwin, E. (2009). Effect of harvest maturity on quality of fresh-cut pear salad. Postharv. Biol. Tec., 51(2), 250–256.
Bajpai, P.K., Warghat, A.R., Sharma, R.K., Yadav, A., Thakur, A.K., Srivastava, R.B., Stobdan, T. (2014). Structure and genetic diversity of natural populations of Morus alba in the Trans-Himalayan Ladakh Region. Biochem. Genet., 52, 137–152.
Blankenship, S.M., Parker, M., Unrath, C.R. (1997). Use of maturityindices for predicting post-storage firmness of ‘Fuji’ apples. HortSci., 32,909–910.
Błaszczyk, J. (2010). Influence of harvest date and storage conditions on the changes of selected qualitative conditions of ‘Concorde’ pears. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 18(2), 211–221.
Burns, J., Gardner, P.T., O’Neil, J., Crawford, S., Morecroft, I., McPhail, D.B., Lister, C., Mat-thews, D., MacLean, M.R., Lean, M.E., Duthie, G.G., Crozier, A. (2000). Relationship among antioxidant activity, vasodilation capacity, and phenolic content of red wines. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48(2), 220–230.
Cui, T., Nakamura, K., Ma, L., Li, J.Z., Kayahara, H. (2005). Analyses of arbutin and chlorogenic acid, the major phenolic constituents in Oriental pear. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(10), 3882–3887.
Dar, M.A., Wani, J.A., Raina, S.K., Bhat, M.Y. (2012). Effect of available nutrients on yield and quality of pear fruit Bartlett in Kashmir Valley India. J. Environ. Biol., 33(6), 1011–1014.
Dasgupta, N., De, B. (2004). Antioxidant activity of Piper betel L. leaf extract in vitro. Food Chem., 88, 219–224.
Deckers, T., Schoofs, H. (2008). Status of the pear production in Europe. Acta Hortic., 800, 95–106.
Dewulfa, W., Jancsókb, P., Nicolaic, B., De Roecka, G., Briassoulis, D. (1999). Determining the firmness of a pear using finite element modal analysis. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 74(3), 217–224.
FAO (2005). Food and Agricultural Organization., accessed 20.09.2015.
FAO (2010). Food and Agricultural Organization., accessed 20.09.2015.
FAO (2013). Food and Agricultural Organization., accessed 20.09.2015.
Favell, D.J. (1998). A comparison of the vitamin C content of fresh and frozen vegetables. Food Chem., 62, 59–64.
Feng, S.G., Lu, J.J., Gao, L., Liu, J.J., Wang, H.Z. (2014). Molecular phylogeny analysis and species identification of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) in China. Biochem. Genet., 52, 127–136.
Ferreira, D., Guyot, S., Marnet, N., Delgadillo, I., Renard, C.M., Coimbra, M.A. (2002). Composition of phenolic compounds in a Portuguese pear (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) and changes after sun-drying. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50(16), 4537–4544.
Flaishman, M.A., Shargal, A., Stern, R.A. (2001). The synthetic cytokinin CPPU increases fruit size and yield of ‘Spadona’ and ‘Coscia’ pear (Pyrus communis L.). J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech., 76, 145–149.
Galvis-Sanchez, A.C., Gil-Izquierdo, A., Gil, M.I. (2003). Comparative study of six pear cultivars in terms of their phenolic content, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity. J. Sci. Food Agric., 83, 995–1003.
Garriz, P.I., Álvarez, H.L., Colavita, G.M. (2005). Growth pattern of ‘Abbé Fetel’ pear fruits. Acta Hortic., 674, 321–327.
Gorsel, H., Li, C., Kerbel, E.L., Smiths, M., Kader, A.A. (1992). Compositional characterization of Prune juice. J. Agr. Food Chem., 40, 784–789.
Iglesias, I., Echeverría, G. (2009). Differential effect of cultivar and harvest date on nectarine colour, quality and consumer acceptance. Sci. Hortic., 120(1), 41–50.
Huang, X., Hsieh, F. (2005). Physical properties, sensory attributes, and consumer preference of pear fruit leather. J. Food Sci., 70, 177–186.
Huang, C., Yu, B., Teng, Y., Su, J., Shu, Q., Cheng, Z., Zeng, L. (2009). Effects of fruit bagging on coloring and related physiology and qualities of red Chinese sand pears during fruit matu-ration. Sci. Hortic., 121, 149–158.
Kappel, F., Fisher-Fleming, R., Hogue, E.J. (1995). Ideal pear sensory attributes and fruit charac-teristics. Hortsci., 30(5), 988–993.
Karadeniz, F. (1999). A research on the chemical composition of pear juice. Turk. J. Agric. For., 23, 355–358.
Karadeniz, F., Burdurlu, H.S., Koca, N., Soyer, Y. (2005). antioxidant activity of selected fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. Turk. J. Agric. For., 29, 297–303.
Kawamura, T. (2000). Relationship between skin color and maturity of japanase pear’ Housui’. Jap. J. Farm Work Res., 35, 33–38.
Krasnova, I., Karklina, D., Seglina, D., Juhnevica, K., Heidemane, G. (2011). The evaluation of sensory physical and chemical properties of pears grown in Latvia. Agr. Sin., 16, 145–151.
Lee, S.H., Choi, J.H., Kim, W.S., Han, T.H., Park, Y.S., Gemma, H. (2006). Effect of soil water stress on the development of stone cells in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. ‘Niitaka’) flesh. Sci. Hor-tic., 110, 247–253.
Lepaja, L., Kullaj, E., Lepaja, K., Shehaj, M., Zajmi, A. (2013). Fruit quality parameters of five pear cultivars in western Kosovo. J. Int. Sci., 2, 245–250.
Li, X., Gao, W.Y., Huang, L.J., Zhang, J.Y., Guo, X.H. (2011). Antioxidant and antiinflammation capacities of some pear cultivars. J. Food Sci., 76(7), C, 985–990.
Mlcek, J., Valsikova, M., Druzbikova, H., Ryant, P., Jurikova, T., Sochor, J., Borkovcova, M. (2015). The antioxidant capacity and macroelement content of several onion cultivars. Turk. J. Agric. For., 39, 999–1004.
Naor, A. (2001). Irrigation and crop load influence fruit size and water relations in field-grown ‘Spadona’ pear. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 126(2), 252–255.
Oleszek, W., Amiot, M.J., Aubert, S.Y. (1994). Identification of some phenolics in pear fruit. J. Agric Food Chem., 42, 1261–1265.
Özaydın, A.G., Özçelik, Ö. (2014). Ankara Armudunun Bazı Fizikokimyasal Özellikleri Üzerine Fırında Kurutma İşleminin Etkisi. Akademik Gıda, 12(4), 17–26.
Ozturk, I., Ercisli, S., Kalkan, F., Demir, B. (2009). Some chemical and physico-mechanical properties of pear cultivars. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8(4), 687–693.
Pimienta-Barrios, E. (1994). Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.): A valuable fruit crop for the semiarid lands of Mexico. J. Arid. Environ., 28(1), 1–11.
Proteggente, A.R., Pannala, A.S., Paganga, G., Van Buren, L., Wagner, E., Wisemann, S., Van De Put, F., Dacombe, C., Rice-Evans, CA. (2002). The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruit and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin C composition. Free Rad. Res., 36, 217–233.
Ranadive, A.S., Haard, N.F. (1973). Chemical nature of stone cells from pear fruit, J. Food Sci., 38, 331–333.
Rezaeirad, D., Bakhshi, D., Ghasemnezhad, M., Lahiji, HS. (2013). Evaluation of some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of local pears (Pyrus spp.) in the north of Iran. Int. J. Agric. Crop Sci., 8, 882–887.
Ruttanaprasert, R., Banterng, P., Jogloy, S., Vorasoot, N., Kesmala, T., Kanwar, R.S., Holbrook, C.C., Patanothai, A. (2014). Genotypic variability for tuber yield, biomass, and drought tolerance in Jerusalem artichoke germplasm. Turk. J. Agric. For., 38, 570–580.
Sawaya, W.N., Khatchadourian, H.A., Safi, W.M., Al-Muhammed, H.M. (1983). Chemical characterization of prickly pear pulp, Opuntia ficus-indica, and the manufacturing of prickly pear jam. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 18, 183–193.
Sáenz, C., Estévez, A.M., Sepúlveda, E., Mecklenburg, P. (1998). Cactus pear fruit: A new source for a natural sweetener. Plant Foods Human. Nutr., 52, 141–149.
Serrano, M., Martinez-Romero, D., Castillo, S., Guillén, F., Valero, D. (2005). The use of natural antifungal compounds improves the beneficial effect of MAP in sweet cherry storage. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol., 6(1), 115–123.
Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungtic acid reagent. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 16, 144–158.
Spanos, G.A., Wrolstad, R.E. (1990). Influence of variety, maturity, processing and storage on the phenol composition of pear juice. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38, 817–824.
Stern, R.A, Shargal, A., Flaishman, M. (2002). Effects of the synthetic cytokinin CPPU on fruit size and yield of ‘Spadona’ pear (Pyrus communis L.) Acta Hortic., 596, 797–801.
Stern, R.A., Flaishman, M.A. (2003). Benzyladenine effects on fruit size, fruit thinning and return yield of ‘Spadona’ and ‘Coscia’ pear. Sci. Hortic., 98(4), 499–504.
Stevens, M.A., Albright, M. (1980). An approach to sensory evaluation of horticultural commodities. HortSci., 15, 48–50.
Tanrioven, D., Eksi, A. (2005). Phenolic compounds in pear juice from different cultivars. Food Chem., 93, 89–93.
Tao, P., Shu, Q., Wang, J.J., Zhang, W.B. (2004). Present situation and prospect of research and utilization on red pear germplasm resources. Southwest China J. Agri. Sci., 17, 409–412.
Veda, S., Platel, K., Srinivasan, K. (2007). Varietal differences in the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55(19), 7931–7935.
Verlindena, B.E., Desmeta, M., Saevelsa, S., Saeysa, W., Theronc, K., Cubeddub, R., Pifferib, A., Torricellib, A. (2008). Time-resolved and continuous wave NIR reflectance spectroscopy to predict soluble solids content and firmness of pear. Postharv. Biol. Tec., 47(1), 68–74.
White, A.G., Alspach, P.A. (1996). Variation in fruit shape in three pear hybrid progenies. New Zeal. J. Crop Hort., 24, 409–413.
White, A.G., Alspach, P.A., Weskett, R.H., Brewer, L.R. (2000). Heritability of fruit shape in pears. Euphytica, 112, 1–7.
Yarılgaç, T., Yıldız, K. (2001). Some pomological properties of local pears grown Adilcevaz district. YYU Agric. Sci. J., 11(2), 9–12.
Zhang, X., Allan, A.C., Yi, Q., Chen, L., Li, K., Shu, Q., Su, J. (2011). Differential gene expression analysis of Yunnan red pear, Pyrus pyrifolia, during fruit skin coloration. Plant Mol. Biol. Rep., 29(2), 305–314.


Yasin Ozdemir 
Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova, Turkey
Mehmet Emin Akcay 
Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute, Yalova, Turkey
Sezai Ercisli 
Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey
Mehmet Ozkan 
Food Control Laboratory, Tekirdag, Turkey
Ugur Ozyurt 
Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>