Agnieszka Hanaka

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland

Sławomir Dresler

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland

Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland


The present study deals with biochemical and physiological methods for assessment of the optimal nutrient supply for the growth and development of garden rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.), edible vegetable. Two nitrate (0.3; 0.6 g N dm-3 of medium) and three potassium doses (0.3; 0.6; 0.9 g K dm-3 of medium) in the form of sulphate or chlo-ride were examined. At the higher nitrate dose and the sulphate form of potassium the in-tense green colour of leaves, higher content of nitrates, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid and lower carbohydrates content correlated with elevated growth parameters, e.g. the number of leaves and partially plant fresh weight. The proline and anthocyanin contents weakly diversified the nutrient supply. Despite the lack of modification in the photosynthetic pigment concentration, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly im-proved when the higher nitrate dose accompanied the sulphate form of potassium (higher values of fluorescence decrease, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the dark-adapted state, photochemical quenching and lower values of the fraction of ab-sorbed light energy not used for photochemistry). The biochemical and photosynthetic pa-rameters corresponding to the morphological characteristics (leaf colour, number of leaves and plant fresh weight) indicated that better nutrient conditions were provided to plants under the combined fertilization of the higher nitrate dose and the sulphate form of potassium.


anthocyanins, carbohydrates, chlorophyll fluorescence, flavonoids, proline

Anjum, N.A., Gill, S.S., Gill, R., Hasanuzzaman, M., Duarte, A.C., Pereira, E., Ahmad, I., Tuteja, R., Tuteja, N. (2014). Metal/metalloid stress tolerance in plants: role of ascorbate, its redox cou-ple, and associated enzymes. Protoplasma, 251, 1265–1283.
Arbona, V., Manzi, M., de Ollas, C., Gómez-Cadenas, A. (2013). Metabolomics as a tool to investigate abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14, 4885–4911.
Ashraf, M., Foolad, M.R. (2007). Roles of glycine, betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ. Exp. Bot., 59, 206–216.
Bates L.S. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil, 39, 205–207.
de Bona, F.D., Schmidt, F., Monteiro, F.A. (2013). Importance of the nitrogen source in the grass species Brachiaria brizantha responses to sulfur limitation. Plant Soil, 373, 201–216.
Bremner, J.M., Keeney, D.R. (1965). Steam distillation methods for determination of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite. Anal. Chim. Acta, 32, 485–495.
Ceylan, O., Mordogan, N., Cakici, H., Yioldas, F. (2002). Effects of different nitrogen levels on the yield and nitrogen accumulation in the rocket. Asian J. Plant Sci., 1, 482–483.
Ciompi, S., Gentili, E., Guidi, L., Soldatini, G.F. (1996). The effect of nitrogen deficiency on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in sunflower. Plant Sci., 118, 177–184.
Filippou, P., Bouchagier, P., Skotti, E., Fotopoulos, V. (2014). Proline and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species metabolism is involved in the tolerant response of the invasive plant species Ailanthus altissima to drought and salinity. Eniron. Exp. Bot., 97, 1–10.
Hawrylak-Nowak, B. (2008). Changes in anthocyanin content as indicator of maize sensitivity to selenium. J. Plant Nutr., 31, 1232–1242.
Lee, S.K., Kader, A.A. (2000). Preharvest and postharvest factors influencing vitamin C content of horticultural crops. Postharv. Biol. Tec., 20, 207–220.
Li, D., Tian, M., Cai, J., Jiang, D., Cao, W., Dai, T. (2013). Effects of low nitrogen supply on relationships between photosynthesis and nitrogen status at different leaf position in wheat seedlings. Plant Growth Reg., 70, 257–263.
Lin, Y.C., Hu, Y.G., Ren, C.Z., Guo, L.C., Wang, C.L., Jiang, Y., Wang, W.J., Phendukani, H., Zeng, Z.H. (2013). Effects of nitrogen application on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and leaf gas exchange in naked oat. J. Integr. Agr., 12, 2164–2171.
Mancinelli, A.L., Yang, C.P.H., Lindquist, P., Anderson, O.R., Rabino, I. (1975). Photocontrol of anthocyanin synthesis. III. The action of streptomycin. Plant Physiol., 55, 251–257.
Maxwell, K., Johnson, G.N. (2000). Chlorophyll fluorescence – a practical guide. J. Exp. Bot., 51, 659–668.
Moya, J.L., Ros, R., Picazo, I. (1993). Influence of cadmium and nickel on growth, net photosynthesis and carbohydrate distribution in rice plants. Photosynth. Res., 36, 75–80.
Müller, V., Lankes, C., Schmitz-Eiberger, M., Noga, G., Hunsche, M. (2013). Estimation of flavonoid and centelloside accumulation in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban by multiparametric fluorescence measurements. Eniron. Exp. Bot., 93, 27–34.
Noichinda, S., Bodhipadma, K., Mahamontri, C., Narongruk, T., Ketsa, S. (2007). Light during storage prevents loss of ascorbic acid, and increases glucose and fructose levels in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). Postharv. Biol. Tec., 44, 312–315.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak, R. (2009). Growth and yield of garden rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 8, 23–33.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak, R., Dzida, K., Rożek, E., Jarosz, Z. (2012). Effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on growth, yield and chemical composition of garden rocket. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 11, 289–300.
Oloyede, F.M., Adebooye, O.C., Obuotor, E.M. (2014). Planting date and fertilizer affect antioxidants in pumpkin fruit. Sci. Hort., 168, 46–50.
Percival, G.C., Keary, I.P., Noviss, K. (2008). The potential of a chlorophyll content SPAD meter to quantify nutrient stress in foliar tissue of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), English oak (Quercus robur), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Arboric Urban For., 34, 89–100.
PN EN 12630:2002. Fruit and vegetable juices – determination of glucose, fructose, sorbitol and sucrose contents – method using high performance liquid chromatography.
PN-EN 14130:2004. Foodstuffs – determination of vitamin C by HPLC.
Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII (2008). Polish Pharmaceutical Society (eds.), Warsaw, Poland, PZWL.
Schmidt, S.B., Pedas, P., Laursen, K.H., Schjoerring, J.K., Latent, S.H. (2013). Manganese deficiency in barley can be diagnosed and remediated on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Plant Soil, 372, 417–429.
Sicher, R.C., Timlin, D., Bailey, B. (2012). Responses of growth and primary metabolism of water-stressed barley roots to rehydration. J. Plant Physiol., 169, 686–695.
De Tullio, M.C., Arrigoni, O. (2004). Hopes, disillusions and more hopes from vitamin C. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 61, 209–219.
Vinit-Dunand, F., Epron, D., Alaoui-Sossé, B., Badot, P.M. (2002). Effects of copper on growth and on photosynthesis of mature and expanding leaves in cucumber plants. Plant Sci., 163, 53–58.
Wellburn, A.R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J. Plant Physiol., 144, 307–313.
Xu, G., Magen, H., Tarchitzky, J., Kafkafi, U. (2000). Advances in chloride nutrition. Adv. Agron., 68, 97–150.


Agnieszka Hanaka 
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland
Sławomir Dresler 
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland
Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak 
University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >>