GROWTH RESPONSE TO NITROGEN AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION OF COMMON BASIL (Ocimum basilicum L.) PLANTS
Renata Nurzyńska-WierdakUniversity of Life Sciences in Lublin
Ewa RożekUniversity of Life Sciences in Lublin
Katarzyna DzidaUniversity of Life Sciences in Lublin
Bartłomiej BorowskiUniversity of Life Sciences in Lublin
Curative and aromatic properties of basil herb make this species appear more and more frequently in field and glasshouse cultivations. Growth and yielding of basil
plants depends, among others, upon the cultivar and fertilization. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse, in the period from February to May 2009–2010. Plants were grown in pots of the capacity of 4 dm3, filled with peat substrate. Nitrogen (administered in the form of ammonium saltpeter) concentration in the substrate was differentiated: 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,9 g N. dm3, as well as that of potassium: 0,4; 0,8 g K. dm3, given in the form of a sulfate. The plants of three examined basil cultivars (Kasia, Wala, green leaved form) differed in average height, number of branchings, size of leaves, as well as the weight of fresh and air-dry herb. The application of nitrogen fertilization significantly differentiated the mean height and length and width of leaf blades in basil plants that decreased as the dose of this nutrient increased. Plants fed with the lowest and medium dose of nitrogen had significantly higher weight of fresh and air-dry herb, compared to the plants obtaining the highest dose. The amount of fresh herb of the examined plants remained under significant influence of the co-operation. The fresh herb weight of the examined plants remained under significant effect of cooperation between the cultivar and nitrogen dose. No significant effect of potassium dose was found upon the examined biometric features of basil plants. The interaction between nitrogen and potassium in the formation of basil growth and development was only demonstrated with reference to the height of plants and width of the leaf blade.
Keywords:Lamiaceae, plant morphology, cultivars, fresh weight of herb, macronutrients
Ali M. A., Hossain M.A., Mondal M.F., Farooque A.M., 2003. Effect of nitrogen and potassium on yield and quality of carrot. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 6 (18), 1574–1577.
Anwar M., Patra D.D., Chand S., Alpesh K., Naqvi A.A., Khanuja S.P.S., 2005. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality French basil. Comm. Soil Sci. Plan., 36 (13/14), 1737–1746.
Arabaci O., Bayram E., 2004. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and different plant densities on some agronomic and technologic characteristic of Ocimum basilicum L. (Basil). J. Agron., 3 (4), 255–262.
Biesiada A., Kuś A., 2010. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation on yielding and nutritional status of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 9 (2), 3–12.
Chang X., Alderson P.G., Wright Ch.J., 2008. Solar irradiance level alters the growth of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and its content of volatile oils. Environ. Exp. Bot., 63, 216–223.
Daneshian A., Gurbuz B., Cosge B., Ipek A., 2009. Chemical components of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown at different nitrogen levels. Internat. J. Nat. Eng. Sci., 3 (3), 8–12.
Dzida K., 2010a. Nutrients contents in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) herb depending on calcium carbonate dose and cultivar. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 9 (4), 143–151.
Dzida K., 2010b. Biological value and essential oil content in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) depending on calcium fertilization and cultivar. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 9 (4), 153–161.
Dzida K., Jarosz Z., 2006. Plonowanie i skład chemiczny majeranku ogrodowego (Origanum majorana L.) w zależności od zróżnicowanego nawożenia azotowo-potasowego. Acta Agrophys., 7 (3), 561–566.
Geetha A., Rao P.V., Reddy D.V., Shaik M., 2009. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on macro and micro nutrient uptake, oil content, quality and herbage yield in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). res. Crops, 10 (3), 740–742.
Golcz A., Politycka B., Seidler-Łożykowska K., 2006. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and stage of plant development on the mass and quality of sweet basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.). Herba Pol., 52 (1/2), 22–29.
Kandil M.A., Khatab M.E., Ahmed S.S., Schnug E., 2009. Herbal and essential oil yield of Genovese basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown with mineral and organic fertilizer sources in Egypt. J. Kulturpflanzen, 61 (12), 443–449.
Kaya C., Higgs D., 2003. Supplementary potassium nitrate improves salt tolerance in bell pepper plants. J. Plant Nutr., 26 (7), 1367–1382.
Luz J. M. Q., Morais T. P. S., Blank A. F., Sodre A. C. B., Oliveira G. S., 2009. Content, yield and chemical composition of the essential basil oil under chicken manure levels. Hort. Bras., 27 (3), 349–353.
Ma L., Shi Y., 2011. Effects of potassium fertilizer on physiological and biochemical index of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Energy Procedia, 5, 581–586.
Ma L., Ren G., Shi Y,. 2012. Effects of potassium fertilizer on diurnal change of photosynthesis in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Adv. Mater. Res.Vols, 343–344, 1087–1091.
Megda M.M., Monteiro F.A., 2010. Nitrogen and potassium supply and the morphogenic and productive characteristics of marandu palisadegrass. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 39 (8), 1666–1675.
Nguyen P.M., Kwee E.M., Niemeyer E.D., 2010. Potassium rate alters the antioxidant capacity and phenolic concentration of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaves. Food Chem., 123, 1235–1241.
Nour A.H., Elhussein S.A., Osman N.A., Ahmed N.E., Abduelrahman A.A., Yusoff M.M., Nour A.H., 2009. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Sudanese accessions of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J. Applied Sci., 9 (23), 4161–4167.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak R., 2009. Growth and yield of garden rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) affected by nitrogen and potassium fertilization. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 8 (4), 23–33.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak R., Borowski B., 2011. Dynamics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) growth affected by cultivar and foliar feeding with nitrogen. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 10 (3), 307–317.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak R., Borowski B., Dzida K., 2011a. Yield and chemical composition of basil herb depending on cultivar and foliar feeding with nitrogen. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 10 (1), 207–219.
Nurzyńska-Wierdak R., Rożek E., Borowski B., 2011b. Response of different basil cultivars to nitrogen and potassium fertilization: total and mineral nitrogen content in herb. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 10 (4), 217–232.
Nurzyński J., 2003. Nawożenie roślin ogrodniczych. WAR, Lublin.
Oxenham S.K., Svoboda K.P., Walters D.K., 2005. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of basil (Ocimum basilicum). J. Phytopathol., 153 (3), 174–180.
Rao E.V.S.P., Puttana K., Ganesha R.S., Ramesh S., 2007. Nitrogen and potassium nutrition of French basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn.). J. Spices Aromat. Plants, 16 (2), 99–105.
Said-Al Ahl H.A.H., Mahmoud A.A., 2010. Effect of zinc and/or iron foliar application on growth and essential oil of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under salt stress. Ozean J. Appl. Sci., 3 (1), 97–111.
Sekar K., Thangaraj S., Saravana Babu S., Harisaranraj R., Suresh K., 2009. Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum basilicum. J. Phytol., 1 (6), 408–413.
Sharafzadeh S., Esmaeili M., Mohammadi A.H., 2011. Interaction effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on growth, essentials oil and total phenolic content of sweet basil. Adv. Environ. Biol., 5 (6), 1285–1289.
Sifola M.I., Barbieri G., 2006. Growth, yield and essential oil content of three cultivars of basil grown under different levels of nitrogen in the field. Sci. Hort, 108, 408–413.
Singh K., Singh P.P., Beg S. U., Kumar D., Patra D.D., 2004. Effect of NPK fertilizers on growth, oil yield and quality of French basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J. Spices Aromat. Crops, 13, 52–54.
Suh E.-J., Park K.-W., Park K.-W., 1999. Effect of different concentrations of nutrient solutions on the growth, yield, and quality of basil. Acta Hortic., 483, 193–198.
Svecova E., Neugebauerova J., 2010. A study of 34 cultivars of basil (Ocimum L.) and their morphological, economic and biochemical characteristics, using standardized descriptors. Acta Univ. Sapientiae, Alimentaria, 3, 118–135.
Taie H.A.A., Salama Z.A.E.R., Radwan S., 2010. Potential activity of basil plants as a source of antioxidants and anticancer agents as affected by organic and bio-organic fertilization, Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj 38, 119–127.
Wójcik P., 2004. Uptake of mineral nutrients from foliar fertilization. J. Fruit Orn. Plant Res. Spec. ed., 12, 201–218.
Zheljazkov V.D., Cantrell Ch.L., Ebelhar M.W., Rowe D.E., Coker Ch., 2008. Productivity, oil content, and oil composition of sweet basil as a function of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization. Hort. Sci., 43 (5), 1415–1422.
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.