ALLEVIATING THE SALT STRESS EFFECTS IN Salvia splendens BY HUMIC ACID APPLICATION
Salt stress is a serious problem in urban landscape of arid and semi arid regions. To overcome the adverse impacts of salinity, the application of organic matter and plant nutrients in the growth media for improving of plant growth is essential. An experiment was conducted in order to determine the response of Salvia splendens to salinity levels and also the role of humic acid in the salt stress alleviation. In the current experiment five salinity (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mM NaCl) and three humic acid (0, 100, 500 and 1000 mg l−1) treatments were prepared. The effects of these treatments were investigated on some growth parameters, physiological characteristics and also biochemical compounds. The results indicated that the growth parameters decreased in saline-treated plants than control plants. Different salinity levels significantly affected relative water content, evaporation rate and also electrolyte leakage. Salinity caused the increase in proline, malondialdehyde, sugar content, DPPH, total phenol content and decrease in chlorophyll, compare to the control plants. Application of humic acid on Salvia splendens, decrease leaf area and plant height compared to the control plants. Thus, regarding the growth parameters, it is probable that the effect of humic acid on the biochemical compounds is similar to salinity effect. The findings suggest that Sage is a sensitive ornamental plant to salinity and humic acid (in the studied levels) could not alleviate the negative effects of salt stress on this plant.
humic acid; organic matter; salinity; seasonal flower
Abe, N., Murata, T., Hirota. A. (1998). Novel 1,1-diphen yl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavengers, bisorbicillin and demethyltrichodermol, from a fungus. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 62, 661–662.
Ahmad, R., Malik, K.A. (eds.). (2002). Prospects for saline agriculture. International Seminar of Prospects For Saline Agriculture, Islamabad, Pakistan. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordecht, p. 244.
Amini, F., Ehsanpour, A.A. (2005). Soluble proteins, proline, carbohydrates, and Na+/K+ changes in two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars under in vitro salt stress. Am. J. Biochem. Biotechnol., 1(4), 212–216.
Arancon, N.Q., Edward, S.L., Byrne, R. (2006). Effects of humic acids from vermicomposts on plant growth. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 42, 65–69.
Ashraf, M., Harris, P.J.C. (2004). Potential biochemical indicators of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Sci., 166, 3–16.
Aydin, A., Kant, C., Turan, M. (2011). Humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants decreasing membrane Leakage. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 7(7), 1073–1086.
Bagheri, A., Sadeghipour, O. (2009). Effects of salt stress on yield, yield components and carbohydrates content in four Hull less Barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) cultivars. J. Biol. Sci., 9(8), 909–912.
Baldotto, L.E.B., Baldotto, M.A., Canellas, L.P., Smith, R.E.B., Olivares, F.L. (2010). Growth promotion of pineapple ‘Vitória’ by humic acids and Burkholderia spp. during acclimatization. Braz. J. Soil Sci., 34(5), 1593–1600.
Baldotto, L.E.B., Baldotto, M.A., Soares, R.R, Martinez, H.E.P., Venegas, V.H.A. (2012). Adventitious rooting in cuttings of croton and hibiscus in response toindolbutyric acid and humic acid. Rev. Ceres, 59, 476–483.
Bates, L., Waldren, R., Teare, I. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil, 39(1), 205–207.
Ben Hamed, K., Castagna, A., Salem, E., Ranieri, A., Abdelly, C. (2007). Sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) under salinity conditions: a comparison of leaf and root antioxidant responses. Plant Growth Regul., 53(3), 185–194.
Cabrera, RI. (2014). Alternative water sources for urban landscape irrigation in arid regions. J. Arid Land Stud., 24(1), 89–92.
Canellas, L.P., Olivares, F.L., Aguiar, N.O., Jones, D.L., Nebbioso, A., Mazzei, P., Piccolo, A. (2015). Humic and fulvic acids as biostimulants in horticulture. Sci. Hortic., 193, 15–27.
Cimrin, K.M., Onder, T., Turan, M., Burcu, T. (2010). Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9, 5845–5851.
Demidchik, V., Straltsova, D., Medvedev, S, Pozhvanov, G., Sokolik, A., Yurin, V. (2014). Stress-induced electrolyte leakage: the role of K+ permeable channels and involvement in programmed cell death and metabolic adjustment. J. Exp. Bot., 65(5), 1259–1270.
Dere, S., Gunes, T., Sivaci, R. (1998). Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll A, B and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turk. J. Bot., 22, 13–17.
Dhanapackiam, S., Ilyas, M. (2010). Effect of salinity on chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of Sesbania grandiflora seedlings. Ind. J. Sci. Technol., 3(1), 64–66.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A., Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem., 28, 350–356.
Francois, L.E., Maas, E.V. (1999). Crop response and management on salt-affected soils. In: Handbook of plant and crop stress, Pessarakli, M. (ed). Marcel Dekker, New York, 169–201.
Ghoulam, C., Foursy, A., Fares, K. (2002). Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ. Exp. Bot., 47, 39–50.
Khalesro, S., Salehi, M., Mahdavi, B. (2015). Effect of humic acid and salinity stress on germination characteristic of savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Biol. Forum Int. J., 7(2), 554–561.
Ma, J.F., Yamaji, N. (2006). Silicon uptake and accumulation in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci., 11, 329–397.
Mademba, F., Boucherea, U.A., Larher, F.R. (2003). Proline accumulation in cultivated citrus and its relationship with salt tolerance. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 78(5), 617–623.
Ouni, Y., Ghnayaa, T., Montemurro, F., Abdellya, C., Lakhdara, A. (2014). The role of humic substances in mitigating the harmful effects of soil salinity and improveplant productivity. Int. Plant Prod., 8, 353–374.
Paksoy, M., Türkmen, Ö., Dursun, A. (2010). Effects of potassium and humic acid onemergence, growth and nutrient contents of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) seedling under saline soil conditions. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9, 5343–5346.
Parvanova, D., Ivanov, S., Konstantinova, T., Karanov E., Atanassov, A., Tsvetkov, T., Alexieva, V., Djilianov, D. (2004). Transgenic tobacco plants accumulating osmolytes show reduced oxidative damage under freezing stress. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 42, 57–63.
Premachandre, G.S., Saneoka, H., Fujta, K. (1991). Osmotic adjustment and stomata response to water deficit in maize. J. Exp. Bot., 43, 1451–1456.
Rezazadeh, A., Ghasemnezhad, A., Barani, M., Telmadarrehei, T. (2012). Effect of salinity on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaves. Res. J. Med. Plants, 6(3), 245–252.
Rodrıguez, P., Torrecilla, A., Morales, M.A., Ortuño, M.F., Sánchez-Blanco, M.J. (2005). Effects of NaCl salinity and water stress on growth and leaf water relations of Asteriscus maritimus plants. Environ. Exp. Bot., 53, 113–123.
Sabet Teimouri, S.T., Khazaie, H., Nezami, A., Nasiri Mahallati, M. (2007). Investigation of different levels of salinity on physiological characteristics and leaf anti oxidant enzyme rate of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). J. Agric. Res., 7, 171–190.
Safi, M., Fardous, A., Muddaber, M., El-Zuraiqi, S., Al-Hadidi, L., Bashabsheh, I. (2005). Effect of treated saline water on flower yield and quality of roses Rosa hybrida and carnation Dianthus caryophyllus. ScienceAsia, 31, 335–339.
Silveira, J.A.G., Viegas, R.A., Rocha, I.M.A., Moreira, A.C.D.M., Moreira, R.A., Oliveira, J.T.A. (2003). Proline accumulation and glutamine synthetase activity are increased by salt-induced proteolysis in cashew leaves. J. Plant Physiol., 160, 115–123.
Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol., 299, 152–178.
Stewart, R.R.C., Bewley, J.D. (1980). Lipid peroxidation associated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiol., 65, 245–248.
Ventura, Y., Myrzabayeva, M., Alikulov, Z., Omarov, R., Khozin-Goldberg, I., Sagi, M. (2014). Effects of salinity on flowering, morphology, biomass accumulation and leaf metabolites in an edible halophyte. AoB Plants, 6, 1–11.
Villarino, G.H., Mattson, N.S. (2011). Assessing tolerance to sodium chloride salinity in fourteen floriculture species. HortTechnology, 21(5), 539–545.
Vysotskaya, L., Hedley, P.E., Sharipova, G., Veselov, D., Kudoyarova, G., Morris, J., Jones, H.G. (2010). Effect of salinity on water relations of wild barley plants differing in salt tolerance. AoB Plants, 1–8.
Wanichananan, P., Kirdmanee, C., Vutiyano, C. (2003). Effect of salinity on biochemical and physiological characteristic in correlation to selection on salt-tolerance in aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.). ScienceAsia, 29(4), 333–339.
Wong, V.N.L., Dalal, R.C., Greene, R.S.B. (2009). Carbon dynamics of sodic and saline soil following gypsum and organic material additions − a laboratory incubation. Appl. Soil Ecol., 41, 29–40.
Wu, L., Dodge, L. (2005). Landscape plant salt tolerance selection guide for recycled water irrigation. A special report for the Elvenia J. Slosson Endowment Fund. Available: http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/files/215300.pdf
Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
The author signs a statement on the originality of the work and the contribution of individuals.
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.