CONTROL OF HEAD SIZE AND NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CABBAGE BY PLANT POPULATION AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION
Eugeniusz KołotaWrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Piotr ChohuraWrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Small size of cabbage heads around 2.0 kg, preferred by the fresh market, may be attained by the choice of cultivar suitable for such purpose of production as well as culture practice, including reasonable rate of fertilization. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of increasing plant population combined with differentiated dose of nitrogen on yield of cabbage, its structure and plant composition. White head cabbage ‘Kalorama F1’ cv. was planted in rows 45 cm apart and 50, 40, 35 or 30 cm within rows, which assured 44 000, 55 000, 63 000 and 74 000 plants per 1 ha, respectively. Nitrogen at the rates of 150 or 300 kg ha-1 was used in 3 equal doses supplied as preplant and top dressing fertilization. Data obtained in the trial indicate that the dose of 150 kg N ha-1 was a limiting factor for the increment of crop yield in higher than 44 000 plant population per 1 ha. In the case of application the dose of 300 kg N ha-1 plants grown in population 63 000 and
74 000 per hectare produced significantly higher yield of heads if compared to the treatment with 44 000 plants. Taking into account the yield size and its structure it can be assumed that spacing 45 cm between plant rows and 40 cm distance in the row, which assure 55 000 plants per 1 ha is the optimum for production of cabbage heads weighted 1.0–2.0 kg, that meet the consumers expectation in the fresh market. Close plant spacing appeared to be beneficial for dry matter, vitamin C and total sugars contents and for decrease of nitrates accumulation. The enhancement of N dose to 300 kg N ha-1 was beneficial for total yield of heads as well those weighted > 1.0 kg. The only change in plant composition under influence of heavy N fertilization was the increment of nitrates accumulation and decrease of Ca content in cabbage heads.
Keywords:Brassica oleracea var. capitata, vitamin C, planting density, nitrates
Cebula, S., Kalisz, A. (2006). Zależność pomiędzy zagęszczeniem roślin a plonowaniem i jakością handlową kilku odmian kapusty głowiastej białej. Folia Hort. Supl., 1, 82–87.
Cizinszky, A.A., Schuster, D.J. (1985). Response of cabbage to insecticide schedule, plant spacing, and fertilizer rates. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 110, 888–893.
FAOSTAT (2012). http://www.fao.org/home/en/.
Ghosh, S.P., Madhavi, R. (1998). Cabbage. In: Handbook of vegetable science and technology. Production, composition, storage and processing, Salunkhe, D.K., Kadam, S.S. (eds). Marcel Dekker INC. New York.
Grabowska, A., Kunicki, E., Libik, A. (2009). The effects of different methods of cultivation and plant spacing on the chemical composition of broccoli heads. Folia Hort, 21/2, 25–34.
Illert, S. (2005). Mini-Gemüse. Gemüse, 12, 66–68.
Knaflewski, M., Spiżewski, T. (1991). Effect of plant density on the yield and quality of broccoli. Veg. Crop Res. Bull., 55, 65–69.
Knavel, D.E., Herron, J.W. (1981). Influence of tillage system, plant spacing, and nitrogen on head weight, yield, and nutrient concentration in cabbage. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 106, 540–545.
Krug, H. (1991). Gemüseproduktion. Ein Lehr und Nachschlagewerk für Studium und Praxis. Verlag Paul Parey. Berlin und Hamburg.
Nowosielski, O. (1974). Metody oznaczania potrzeb nawożenia. Wyd. II, PWRiL, Warszawa.
Polska Norma. PN-90/A-7501/11.
Rubatzky, V., Yamaguchi, M. (1997). World vegetables. Principles, production, and nutritive value. Chapman & Hall, New York.
Rumpel, J., Felczyński, K. (1997). Effect of plant density and cultivar on yield responses in onions (Allium cepa) grown from seeds. Acta Agrobot., 50 (1–2), 221–229.
Stoffellal, P.J., Fleming, M.F. (1990). Plant population influences yield variability of cabbage. J. Amer. Soc. Hrt. Sci., 115(5), 708–711.
United States Standards for Grades of Cabbage (1997). http:/www.ams.usda.gov./AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELPRDC5050254.
Venkata, R., Subbaiah, G., Veeraraghavaiah, R. (2013). Agronomic responses of maize to plant population and nitrogen availability – a review. Internat. J. Plant Anim. Environ. Sci., 4(1), 107–116.
White, J.M., Forbes, R.B. (1976). Effect of spacing and fertilizer ratio on cabbage yield and head weight. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., 89, 118–120.
Wlazło, A., Kunicki, E., Libik, A. (2006). Effect of growing method and plant density on yield of broccoli. Folia Hort., Supl., 2, 197–202.
Yash, P.K. (1998). Handbook on reference methods for soil analysis. Taylor & Francis, New York.
Zhang, F.L., Yu, Y.J., Zhang, D.S., Xu, J.B., Zhao, X.Y., Yu, S.C., Lu, G.X. (2009). A new minitype Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid – ‘Jingqiuwawacai’ for autumn cultivation. China Veget., 24, 72–73.
Żurawik, A., Jadczak, D., Żurawik, P. (2013). The influence of selected agricultural factors on yield and content of some components of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) ‘Sprint’. Acta Agrobot., 66(1), 105–112.
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.