The impact of the addition of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to three commercial growing media and three self-prepared growing media on rooting of cuttings of two ornamental plants: Hydrangea L. and poinsettia Euphorbia pulcherrima ‘Prestige Early Red’ was evaluated. According to the assessment of root system, length of roots, fresh and dry mass of roots, percentage of rooted cuttings the best rooting of cuttings of Hydrangea L. in Ceres and GM2 and of Euphorbia pulcherrima in Klasmann Steck Medium, GM2 and GM3 independent of the doses of IAA was observed. The addition of 200, 300 and 400 μg kg-1 IAA for GM2 and GM3 improved some of the parameters rooted cuttings of Euphorbia pulcherrima. The worst assessment of root system and percentage of rooted cuttings for both ornamental plants with the lowest pH in GM1 as compared to other growing media was shown. Furthermore, 400 μg kg-1 addition of IAA for Klasmann Steck Medium caused significant on higher length of roots and dry mass of roots of Euphorbia pulcherrima.


rooting of cuttings; growing media; IAA; Hydrangea L.; Euphorbia pulcherrima

Chirek, Z. (1990). Changes in the content of phenolic compounds and IAA-oxidase activity during the growth of tobacco crown gall suspension culture. Biol. Plant., 32(1), 19–27.
Dąbski, M., Parzymies, M. (2007). The effect of auxins: IAA, IBA and NAA on rooting of Hebe buchananii (Hook) and Hebe canterburiensis (J.B. Armstr.) ‘Prostrata’ in vitro. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 6(1), 9–14.
Dragišić-Maksimović, J., Maksimović, V., Živanović, B., Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, V., Vuletić, M. (2008). Peroxidase activity and phenolic compounds content in maize root and leaf apoplast, and their association with growth. Plant Sci., 175, 656–662.
Dundek, P., Holík, L., Rohlík, T., Hromádko, L., Vranová, V., Rejšek, K., Formánek, P. (2011). Methods of plant root exudates analysis. A Review. Acta Univ. Agric. et Silvic. Mendel. Brun., 59(3), 241–246.
Firestone, M.K. (1982). Biological denitrification. In: Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, Stevenson F.J. (ed.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 289–326.
García-Florenciano, E., Calderón, A.A., Muňoz, R., Ros Barceló, A. (1991). Epigenetic control of extracellular auxin catabolism in grapevine cells cultured in suspension. Vitis, 30, 57–69.
Ghani, A., Dexter, M., Perrott, K.W. (2003). Hot-water extractable carbon in soil: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts fertilization, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biol. Biochem., 35, 1231–1243.
Goyal, S., Mishra, M.M., Dhankar, S.S., Kapoor, K.K., Batra, R. (1993). Microbial biomass turnover and enzyme activities following the application of farmyard manure to field soil with and without previous long-term applications. Biol. Fertil. Soils, 15, 60–64.
Huttunen, J., Reinikainen, O. (2000). Peat growing media in modern vegetable production in greenhouses. In: Sustaining our peatlands, Rochefort L., Daigle J.-Y. (eds.). Proceedings of the 11th International Peat Congress. Quebec, Canada, Vol. II, 522.
Jackson, B.E., Wright, A.N., Sibley, J.L., Kemble, J.M. (2005). Root growth of three horticultural crops grown in pine bark amended cotton gin compost. J. Environ. Hort., 23(3), 133–137.
Kandeler, E. (1996). Nitrate reductase activity. In: Methods in soil biology, Schinner, F., Öhlinger, R., Kandeler, E., Margesin, R. (eds.). Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg, 176–179.
Kipp, J.A., Wever, G., De Kreij, C. (1999). Substraat: analyse, eigenschappen, advies. Elsevier, 112 (in Dutch).
Klisurska, D., Dencheva, A. (1983). Peroxidase and IAA-oxidase in crude and partially purified enzyme extracts of growing and differentiating root cells. Biol. Plant., 25(2), 110–116.
Krawczyński, J. (1972). Enzymology diagnosis in medical practice. PZWL, Warszawa, 182–184 (in Polish).
López-Bucio, J., Cruz-Ramírez, A., Herrera-Estrella, L. (2003). The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 6, 280–287.
Ma, R.X. (2000). Effects of allelochemicals on activity of nitrate reductase. J. Environ. Sci., 12, 125–128.
Masuoka, N., Kubo, I. (2004). Characterization of xanthine oxidase inhibition by anacardic acids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1688, 245–249.
Montalbini, P. (1992). Changes in xanthine oxidase activity in bean leaves induced by Uromyces phaseoli infection. J. Phytopathol., 134, 63–74.
Perucci, P., Casucci, C., Dumontet, S. (2000). An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 32, 1927–1933.
PN-EN 12579 (2001). Soil improvers and growing media. Taking samples. PKN, 11 (in Polish).
PN-EN 13040 (2002). Soil improvers and growing media. Sample preparation for chemical and physical analysis, determination of dry matter, moisture and bulk density of the laboratory sample. PKN, 15 (in Polish).
PN-EN 13041 (2002). Soil improvers and growing media. Determination of physical properties – Dry bulk density, air capacity, water capacity, shrinkage and total porosity. PKN, 20 (in Polish).
Pongsilp, N., Boonkerd, N. (2007). Research techniques for estimating phenotypic and genotyphic diversity of root- and stem-nodule bacteria. Suranaree J. Sci. Technol., 14, 297–308.
Pudelski, T. (2002). Peat and products peat in horticulture. In: Peatlands and peat, Ilnicki, P. (ed.). Wyd. AR im. Augusta Cieszkowskiego, Poznań, 458–467 (in Polish).
Rousk, J., Brookes, P.C., Baath, E. (2009). Contrasting soil pH effects on fungal and bacterial growth suggest functional redundancy in carbon mineralization. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 75(6), 1589–1596.
Sarwar, M., Arshad, M., Martens, D.A., Frankenberger, W.T. Jr. (1992). Tryptophan-dependent of auxins in soil. Plant Soil, 147, 207–215.
Schmilewski, G. (2008). The role of peat in assuring the quality of growing media. Mires Peat 3/02:, ISSN 1819-754X, 1–8.
Semenov, A.M., van Bruggen, A.H.C., Zelenev, V.V. (1999). Moving waves of bacterial populations and total organic carbon along roots of wheat. Microbial Ecol., 37, 116–128.
Sinsabaugh, R.L. (2010). Phenol oxidase, peroxidase and organic matter dynamics of soil. Soil Biol. Biochem., 42, 391–404.
Smolander, A., Kitunen, V. (2002). Soil microbial activities and characteristics of dissolved organic C and N in relation to tree species. Soil Biol. Biochem., 34, 651–660.
Sokolov, G., Szajdak, L., Simakina, I. (2008). Changes in the structure of nitrogen-containing compounds of peat-, sapropel-, and brown coal-based organic fertilizer. Agronomy Res., 6(1), 149–160.
Szajdak, L.W., Gaca, W. (2010). Nitrate reductase activity in soil under shelterbelt and adjoining cultivated field. Chem. Ecol., 26(4), 123–134.
Szajdak, L.W., Gaca, W., Meysner, T., Styła, K., Maryganova, V. (2011a). Enzymes activity and IAA contents in soils. In: Forestry and agroforestry. Research methods in plant sciences, Narwal, S.S., Pavlovic, P., John, J. (eds.). Studium Press. Houston, Texas LLC. USA, Vol. 2, 207–230.
Szajdak, L.W., Inisheva, L.I., Meysner, T., Gaca, W., Styła, K. (2011b). Activities of enzymes participating in redox potential in the two depths of Tagan peatland. TSPU Vestnik, 8(110), 68–75.
Szajdak, L., Maryganova, V. (2009). Impact of age and composition of shelterbelts plant on IAA content as allelochemical in soils. Allelopathy J., 23(2), 461–468.
Szajdak, L.W., Meysner, T., Styła, K. (2011c). Biochemical and chemical characterization of soils under shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields. In: Shelterbelts: efficient element of the landscape. Chemical and biochemical investigations of ground water and soil, Szajdak L.W. (ed.). LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. Saarbrücken, Germany, 33–53.
Szajdak, L.W., Nowak, J.S. (2013). Impact of peat substrates with different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid on ornamental plant cultivation. Peatlands Int., 1, 25–27.
Szajdak, L.W., Nowak, J.S., Gaca, W., Meysner, T., Styła, K., Szczepański, M. (2013). Mixture of growing medium with IAA, biochemical and chemical properties in Euphorbia pulcherrima cultivation. ProEnvironment, 6(14), 254–261.
Świstowska, A., Kozak, D. (2004). The influence of auxins on the rooting of microcuttings and acclimatization of plants of Columnea hirta Klotzsch et Hanst. Part I. In vitro culture. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus, 3(2), 229–238 (in Polish).
Tian, Q., Chen, F., Liu, J., Zhang, F., Mi, G. (2008). Inhibition of maize root growth by high nitrate supply is correlated with reduced IAA levels in roots. J. Plant Physiol., 165, 942–951.
Tomson, A.E., Zhmakova, N.A., Makarova, N.L., Naumova, G.V., Ovchinnikova, T.F. (2010). On free phenol compounds content in peat. In: Physical, chemical and biological processes in soils, Szajdak, L.W., Karabanov, A.K. (eds.). Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Prodruk, Poznań, 509–514.
Yang, S.J., Du, Z.Y., Yu, Y., Zhang, Z.L., Sun, X.Y., Xing, S.J. (2011). Effects of root pruning on physico-chemical characteristics and biological properties of winter jujube rhizosphere soil. Plant Soil Environ., 11, 493–498.

Published : 2015-12-31

Szajdak, L., Nowak, J., Meysner, T., Styła, K., Gaca, W., & Szczepański, M. (2015). IMPACT OF GROWING MEDIA WITH INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID ADDITION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ROOT SYSTEM OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 14(6), 115-140. Retrieved from

Lech Wojciech Szajdak
Jacek Stanisław Nowak 
Teresa Meysner 
Katarzyna Styła 
Wioletta Gaca 
Marek Szczepański 


Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.