THE IMPACT OF OPEN-FIELD AND PROTECTED CULTIVATION ON BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BANANAS (Musa spp. AAA)
Ebru KafkasDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Çukurova, 01330, Balcali, Adana, Turkey
Hamide GubbukDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Akdeniz, 07070, Konyaaltı, Antalya, Turkey
Hasan PınarDepartment of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Erciyes, 38039,Talas, Kayseri, Turkey
Serkan SelliDepartment of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Çukurova, 01330, Balcali, Adana, Turkey
Esma GunesEsma Gunes Antalya Directorate of Provincial Agriculture and Forestry, 07000, Antalya, Turkey
Bananas have been grown in both open-field and protected cultivation in the subtropics. There are a very limited number of publications focusing on the impact of cultivation systems on the physico-chemical characteristics of bananas. For this reason, we assessed these fruit characteristics including sugars, malic acid, L-ascorbic acid, macro and micro nutrients well as fat and fatty acids of green and ripe bananas (Musa spp. AAA) in both cultivation systems. Experimental results have showed that many parameters affected the fruit ripening stage more than the cultivation system. Sucrose was the most abundant sugar followed by fructose and glucose in both the unripe and the ripe fruit stages. Sugar content, malic acid and L-ascorbic acid were higher in the ripe stage compared to the green stage. The cultivation system affected only glucose content, however, malic acid and L-ascorbic acid were not affected by the cultivation system. The most abundant macro and micro elements found were potassium and iron respectively. Cultivation system affected only potassium, zinc and manganese contents. Nitrogen and phosphorous, were found to be higher in the ripe stage. However, calcium, zinc, manganese and cupper were higher in the unripe stage. The fatty acid showed low value in the unripe stage for both cultivation systems. The concentration of MUFAs were found to be higher in the unripe stage for open-field condition while SFAs and PUFAs percentage were found to be higher in both cultivation systems. Experimental results clearly showed that physico-chemical characteristics of bananas were mainly affected by the ripening stage while the cultivation systems only affected a few characteristics.
Keywords:Musa Cavendishii, sugars, acids, mineral content, HPLC, fatty acids
Adeyemi, O.S., Oladiji, A.T. (2009). Compositional changes in banana (Musa ssp.) fruits during ripening. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8(5), 858–859.
Arcila, P., M.I., Cayon, S.D.G., Morales, O.H. (2002a). Características físicas y químicas del fruto de dominico hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds) de acuerdo con su posición en el racimo [Physical and chemical characteristics of ‘Dominico-Harton’ (Musa AAB Simmonds) fruits according to its position in the bunch]. In: Associacion para la cooperacion en investigacion de banano en el Caribe y en América tropical (ACORBAT) [Association for cooperation in banana research in the Caribbean and tropical America (Acorbat)]. XV Reunion Acorbat, Augura, 27 October – 2 November 2002, Cartagena de India, COL, 498–502 [in Spanish].
Arcila Pulgarín, M.I., Giraldo G.A., Celis, F.E., Duarte, J. (2002b). Cambios físicos y químicos durante la maduración del plátano dominico-hartón (Musa AAB Simmonds) en la región cafetera central colombiana [Physical and chemical changes during ripening of the ‘Dominico-Harton’ plantain fruit (Musa AAB Simmonds) in the Colombian central coffee zone]. In: Associacion para la cooperacion en investigacion de banano en el Caribe y en América tropical (ACORBAT) [Association for cooperation in banana research in the Caribbean and tropical America (ACORBAT)]. XV Reunion Acrobat, Augura, 27 October – 2 November 2002, Cartagena de India, COL, 455–463 [in Spanish].
Arias, P., Dankers, C., Liu, P., Pilkauskas, P. (2003). The world banana economy. 1985–2002. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Available: http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5102e/y5102e00.htm [date of access: 09.11.2020].
Bligh, E.G., Dyer, W.J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian J. Biochem. Physiol., 37, 911–917. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/o59-099
Bozan, B., Tunalier, Z., Koşar, M. Altıntaş, A., Başer, K.H.C. (1997). Comparison of ascorbic and citric acid contents in ‘Emphasis Type’. Proc. 11. Symp. Plant Orig. Crude Drugs, Ankara, pp. 258.
Cano, M.P., De Ancos, B., Matallana, M.C., Cámara, M., Reglero, G., Tabera J. (1997). Differences among Spanish and Latin-American banana cultivars: Morphological, chemical and sensory characteristics. Food Chem., 59(3), 411–419. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00285-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(96)00285-3
Cardanette, G.H.L. (2006). Unripe banana (Musa spp.) products and their influence over glucose tolerance and colonic fermentation. Universidade De Sao Paulo, Faculdade De Alimentos E Nutriçao Experimental, Sao Paulo, PhD. Thesis, pp. 174.
Carvalho, A.V., Seccadio, L.L., Junior, M.M., Do Nascimento, W.M.O. (2011). Qualidade pos-colheita de cultivares de bananeira do grupo ‘Maçã’, na região de Belém, PA. Rev. Bras. Frutic., 33(4), 1095–1102. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011000400007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452011000400007
Chapman, H.D., Pratt, P.F. (1961). Methods of analysis for soils, plants and waters. University of California, Los Angeles, 60–61, 150–179.
Cordenunsi, B.R., Lajolo, F.M. (1995). Starch breakdown during banana ripening: Sucrose synthase and sucrose phosphate synthase. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43, 347–351. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00050a016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00050a016
CSIRO. Division of Food Research, issuing body (1972). Banana ripening guide. North Ryde, N.S.W: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.
Emaga, T.H., Andrianaivo, R.H., Wathelet, B., Tchango, J.T., Paquot, M. (2007). Effects of the stage of maturation and varieties on the chemical composition of banana and plantain peels. Food Chem., 103, 590–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.006
Fellman, J.K., Miller, T.W., Mattison, D.S., Mattheis, J.P. (2000). Factors that influence biosynthesis of volatile flavor compounds in apple fruits. Hort Sci.. 35, 1026–1033. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.35.6.1026
Forster, M. Rodríguez, E.R., Martín, J.D., Romero, C.D. (2003). Distribution of nutrients in edible banana pulp. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 41(2), 167–172.
Gowen, S., ed. (1995). Bananas and plantains. Chapman and Hall, pp. 612. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0737-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0737-2
Hernandez, Y., Glorio Loba, M., Gonzalez, M. (2006). Determination of vitamin C in tropical fruits: A comparative evaluation of methods. Food Chem., 96, 654–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.012
IOM – Institute of Medicine (2001). Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.,
Jones, J.B. (1991). Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination. Micro-Macro Publ., Athens, GA., pp. 79.
Kacar, B. (1972). Bitki ve Toprağın Kimyasal Analizleri. II. Bitki Analizleri [Chemical analysis of plant and soil. II, Plant analysis]. Ankara Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Yayınları: 453, Uygulama Klavuzu:155 [in Turkish].
Lahav, E., Turner, D. (1983). Banana Nutrition. Int. Potash Inst. Bull., 7(33), pp. 62.
Leong, L.P., Shui, G. (2002) . An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chem., 76(1), 69–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00251-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00251-5
Liverani, A., Cangini, A. (1991). Ethylene evolution and changes in carbohydrates and organic acid during maturation of two white and two yellow fleshed peach cultivars. Adv. Hortic. Sci., 5, 59–63.
McGlone, V.A., Kawano, S. (1998). Firmness, dry matter and soluble solids assessment of postharvest kiwifruit by NIR spectroscopy. Postharv. Biol. Technol., 13, 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00007-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(98)00007-6
Meng, L., David, C.S., James, F.T. (1997). Optical chlorophyll sensing system for banana ripening. Postharv. Biol. Technol., 12, 273–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(97)00059-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(97)00059-8
Miron, D., Schaffer, A.A. (1991). Sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and acid invertase in developing fruit of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and the sucrose accumulation Lycopersicon hirsutum Humb. and Bonpl. Plant Physiol., 95, 623–627. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.95.2.623 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.95.2.623
Mustaffa, R., Osman, A., Yusof , S., Mohamed, S. (1998). Physico-chemical changes in Cavendish banana (Musa Cavendishii L var. Montel) at different positions within a bunch during development and maturation. J. Sci. Food Agric., 78, 201–207. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199810)78 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199810)78:2<201::AID-JSFA106>3.0.CO;2-K
Robinson, J.C. (1996). Bananas and plantains. CAB International, pp. 238.
Saquet, A.A., Streif, J., Bangerth, F. (2000). Changes in ATP, ADP and pyridine nucleotide levels related to the incidence of physiological disorders in ‘Conference’ pears and ‘Jonagold’ apples during controlled atmosphere storage. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol., 75, 243–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2000.11511231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2000.11511231
Stover, R.H., Simmonds, N.W. (1987). Bananas. 3rd ed., Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow, Essex, UK, pp. 468.
Torija, E. Diez, C., Matallana, C., Camara, M., Camacho, E., Mazario, P. (1998). Influence of freezing process on free sugars content of papaya and banana fruits. J. Sci. Food Agric. (GBR), 76(3), 315–319. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199803)76 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199803)76:3<315::AID-JSFA929>3.0.CO;2-7
USDA and HHS – U.S Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Dietary guidelines for Americans 2005. Available: https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2020-01/DGA2005.pdf [date of access: 09.11.2020].
USDA and HHS – U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Dietary guidelines for Americans, 7th ed. Washington, DC. Available: https://health.gov/sites/default/files/2020-01/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf [date of access: 09.11.2020].
Wenkam, N.S. (1990). Food of Hawaii and the Paciﬁc basin, fruits and fruit products: Raw, processed, and prepared. Vol. 4: Composition. Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station Research and Extension Series 110, pp. 96.
Wyman, H., Palmer J.K. (1964). Organic acids in the ripening banana fruit. Plant Physiol., 630–633. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.39.4.630 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.39.4.630
Yei, K., Ding, P., Abdul Rahman, N.A. (2012). Determination of optimum harvest maturity and physico-chemical quality of Rastali banana (Musa AAB Rastali) during fruit ripening. J. Sci. Food Agric., 92(1), 171–176. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4559 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4559
Zhu, G.Y., Geuns, J., Dussert, S., Swennen, R., Panis, B. (2006). Change in sugar, sterol and fatty acid composition in banana meristems caused by sucrose-induced acclimation and its effects on cryopreservation. Physiol. Plant., 128, 80–94. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2006.00713.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2006.00713.x
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.