Elżbieta Patkowska

Department of Plant Protection, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Leszczyńskiego 7, 20–069 Lublin, Poland


Cover crops are used in the cultivation of various plants. They properly modify the composition of soil microorganisms and can protect of plants from phytopathogens. The purpose of the field and laboratory studies was to determine the quantitative and qualitative composition of microorganisms in the soil under carrot cultivated with the use of oats, tansy phacelia and spring vetch as cover crops. The paper presents also studies on soil-borne fungi threatening the healthiness of carrot roots. In the conventional cultivation of carrot the population of bacteria (including Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus spp.) was the smallest, while after the application of oats it was the largest. Oats and spring vetch were most effective in limiting the occurrence of soil-borne fungi. Those plants and tansy phacelia caused an increase of the population of saprotrophic fungi (Albifimbria spp., Clonostachys spp. and Trichoderma spp.) in the soil. Intercrop plants had a positive effect on the healthiness of carrot seedlings and roots. Alternaria dauci, A. alternata, A. radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Globisporangium irregulare, Neocosmospora solani, Phytophthora sp., Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum proved to be the most harmful towards the studied underground parts of carrot. Oats proved to be the most effective in inhibiting the occurrence of the pathogenic fungi for Daucus carota L.


Daucus carota L., healthiness of plants, intercrop plants, bacteria and fungi, soil pathogens, plant-microbial interactions

Aarti, T., Meenu, S. (2015). Role of volatile metabolites from Trichoderma citrinoviride in biocontrol of phytopathogens. Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ., 5(1), 86–95.

Adams, I.P., Skelton, A., Macarthur, R., Hodges, T., Hinds, H., Flint, L., Nath, P.D., Boonham, N., Fox, A. (2014). Carrot yellow leaf virus is associated with carrot internal necrosis. PLoS ONE, 9(11), e109125.

Aktaruzzaman, M., Kim, J.Y., Xu, S.J., Kim, B.S. (2014). First report of postharvest gray mold rot on carrot caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea. Res. Plant Dis., 20(2), 129–131. DOI: 10.5423/RPD.2014.20.2.129

Ben-Noon, E., Shtienberg, D., Shlevin, E., Vintal, H., Dinoor, A. (2001). Optimization of chemical suppression of Alternaria dauci, the causal agent of Alternaria leaf blight in carrots. Plant Dis., 85(11), 1149–1156. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.11.1149

Boiteux, L.S., Reis, A., Fonseca, M.E.N., Lourenço Jr., V., Costa, A.F. (2017). Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe heraclei: A novel field disease of carrot (Daucus carota) in Brazil. Plant Dis., 101(8), 1544. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-01-17-0145-PDN

Borowy, A. (2013). Growth and yield of ‘Hamburg’ parsley under no-tillage cultivation using white mustard as a cover crop. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 12(6), 13–32.

Chavarría, D.N., Verdenelli, R.A., Serri, D.L., Restovich, S.B., Andriulo, A.E., Meriles, J.M., Vargas-Gi, S. (2016). Effect of cover crops on microbial community structure and relatedenzyme activities and macronutrient availability. Eur. J. Soil Biol., 76, 74–82. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2016.07.002

Coles, R.B., Wicks, T.J. (2003). The incidence of Alternaria radicina on carrot seeds, seedlings and roots in South Australia. Austral. Plant Pathol., 32, 99–104.

Damiri, N., Mulawarman, M., Effendi, R.S. (2019). Antagonism of Pseudomonas fluorescens from plant roots to Rigidoporus lignosus pathogen of rubber white roots in vitro. Biodivers. J. Biol. Divers., 20(6), 1549–1554. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d200609

Farrar, J.J., Pryor, B.M., Davis, R.M. (2004). Alternaria diseases of carrot. Plant Dis., 88, 776–784.

Hallama, M., Pekrun, C., Lambert, H., Kandele, E. (2019). Hidden miners – the roles of cover crops and soil microorganisms in phosphorus cycling through agroecosystems. Plant Soil, 434 (1–2), 7. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-018-3810-7

Harman, G.E. (2000). Myths and dogmas of biocontrol: changes in perceptions derived from research on Trichoderma harzianum T-22. Plant Dis., 84(4), 377–393. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.4.377

Hernández-Hernández, E.J., Hernández-Ríos, I., Almaraz-Suarez, J.J., López-López, A., Torres-Aquino, M., Flores, F.J.M. (2018). In vitro characterization of rhizobacteria and their antagonism with fungi that cause damping off in chili. Rev. Mex. Cienc. Agríc., 9(3), 525–537.

Himmelstein, J., Maul, J.E., Balci, Y., Everts, K.L. 2016. Factors associated with leguminous green manure incorporation and Fusarium wilt suppression in watermelon. Plant Dis., 100, 1910–1920. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-08-15-0956-RE

Kęsik, T., Konopiński, M., Błażewicz-Woźniak, M. (2000). Weed infestation and yield of onion and carrot under no-tillage cultivation using four cover crops. Ann. AFPP, Dijon – France, 437–444.

Koike, S.T, Smith, R.F., Cahn, M.D., Pryor, B.M. (2017). Association of the carrot pathogen Alternaria dauci with new diseases, Alternaria leaf speck, of lettuce and celery in California. Plant Health Prog., 18(2), 136–143. DOI: 10.1094/PHP-12-16-0074-RS

Kosterna, E. (2014). The yield and quality of broccoli grown under flat covers with soil mulching. Plant Soil Environ., 60(5), 228–233.

Krauss, U., Ten Hoopen, M., Rees, A.R., Stirrup, T., Argyle, T., George, A., Arroyo, C., Corrales, E., Casanoves, F. (2013). Mycoparasitism by Clonostachys byssicola and Clonostachys rosea on Trichoderma spp. from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and implication for the design of mixed biocontrol agents. BioControl, 67(3), 317–327. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.09.011

Lemańczyk, G., Sadowski, Cz. (2002). Fungal communities and health status of roots of winter wheat cultivated after oats and oats mixed with other crops. BioControl, 47(3), 349–361. DOI: 10.1023/A:1014890826149

Lerat, S., Simao-Beaunoir, A-M., Beaulieu, C. (2009). Genetic and physiological determinants of Streptomyces scabies pathogenicity. Mol. Plant Pathol., 10(5), 579–585. DOI: 10.1111/J.1364-3703.2009.00561.x

Leslie, J.F., Summerell, B.A. (2006). The Fusarium laboratory manual. Blackwell Profesional Publishing, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Li, X., Zhang, T., Wang, X., Hua, K., Zhao, L., Han, Z. (2013). The composition of root exudates from two different resistant peanut cultivars and their effects on the growth of soil-borne pathogen. Inter. J. Biol. Sci., 9, 164–173.

Ma, X., Wang, X.B., Cheng, J., Nie, X., Yu, X.X., Zhao, Y.T., Wang, W. (2015). Microencapsulation of Bacillus subtilis B99-2 and its biocontrol efficiency against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato. BioControl, 90, 34–41. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.05.013

Mackiea, K.A., Schmidtb, H.P., Müllerc, T., Kandeler E. (2014). Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vieyard. Sci. Total Environ., 500–501, 34–43.

Mazur, S., Nawrocki, J. (2007). The influence of carrot plant control against Alternaria blight on the root health status after storage. Veget. Crops Res. Bull., 67, 117–125.

Meng, X.K., Yu, J.J., Yu, M.N., Yin, X.L., Liu, Y.F. (2015). Dry flowable formulations of antagonistic Bacillus subtilis strain T429 by spray drying to control rice blast disease. BioControl, 85, 46–51. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.03.004

Naqvi, S.A.M.H. (2004). Diseases of fruits and vegetables. Diagnosis and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Nawrocki, J., Mazur, S. (2011). Effect of cultivation methods on the health of carrot roots. Abstract Book of 3th Congress of PTNO „Science and gardening practice for health and the environment”, 14–16.09.2011, Lublin, 109.

Nesha, R., Siddiqui, Z.A. (2013). Interactions of Pectobacterium carotovorum pv. carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. carotae, and Meloidogyne javanica on the disease complex of carrot. Int. J. Veget. Sci., 19(4), 403–411. DOI:10.1080/19315260.2012.744379

Oliveira, P., Nascente, A.S., Brito Ferreira, E.P., Kluthcouski, J., Lobo jr., M. (2016). Response of soil fungi and biological processes to crop residues in no-tillage system. Pesq. Agropec. Trop., Goiânia, 46(1), 57–64 [available:]

Orluchukwu, J.A., Udensi, U.E. (2013). The effect of intercropping pattern of okra, maize, pepper on weeds infestations and okra yield. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 8(10), 896–902. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR12.639

Park, K.H., Ryu, K.Y., Yun, H.J., Yun, J.C., Kim, B.S., Jeong, K.S., Kwon, Y.S., Cha, B. (2011). Gray mold on carrot caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea. Res. Plant Dis., 17, 364–368. DOI: 10.5423/RPD.2011.17.3.364

Patkowska, E. (2018). Antagonistic bacteria in the soil after Daucus carota L. cultivation. Plant. Soil Environ., 64(3), 120–125. DOI: 10.17221/42/2018-PSE

Patkowska, E., Błażewicz-Woźniak, M. (2014). The microorganisms communities in the soil under the cultivation of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 13(1), 103–115.

Patkowska, E., Błażewicz-Woźniak, M., Konopiński, M., Wach, D. (2016). Effect of cover crops on the fungal and bacterial communities in the soil under carrot cultivation. Plant. Soil Environ., 62(5), 237–242. DOI: 10.17221/117/2016-PSE

Patkowska, E., Konopiński, M. (2011). Cover crops and soil-borne fungi dangerous towards the cultivation of salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius var. sativus (Gaterau) Br.). Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 10(2), 167–181.

Patkowska, E., Konopiński, M. (2013a). The role of oats, common vetch and tansy phacelia as cover plants in the formation of microorganisms communities in the soil under the cultivation of root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum Bisch.) and salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius var. sativus (Gaterau) Br.). Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 12(5), 179–191.

Patkowska, E., Konopiński, M. (2013b). Harmfulness of soil-borne fungi towards root chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum Bisch.) cultivated with the use of cover crops. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 12(4), 3–18.

Patkowska, E., Konopiński M. (2013c). Fungi threatening scorzonera (Scorzonera hispanica L.) cultivation using plant mulches. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 12(6), 215–225.

Patkowska, E., Konopiński, M. (2013d). Effect of cover crops on the microorganisms communities in the soil under scorzonera cultivation. Plant. Soil Environ., 59(10), 460–464.

Patkowska, E., Konopiński M. (2014a). Antagonistic bacteria in the soil after cover crops cultivation. Plant. Soil Environ., 60(2), 69–73.

Patkowska, E., Konopiński, M. (2014b). Occurrence of antagonistic fungi in the soil after cover crops cultivation. Plant. Soil Environ., 60(5), 204–209.

Patkowska, E., Krawiec, M. (2016). Yielding and healthiness of pea cv. ‘Sześciotygodniowy TOR’ after applying biotechnical preparations. Acta Sci. Pol., Hortorum Cultus, 15(2), 143–156.

Pięta, D., Bełkot, M. (2002). Zbiorowiska mikroorganizmów po uprawie facelii błękitnej (Phacelia tanacetifolia Bantham), gorczycy białej (Sinapsis alba L.) i pszenicy ozimej (Triticum aestivum L.). Annales UMCS, sec. EEE, Horticultura, 11, 117–126.

Rachamallu, R.R. (2016). Hairy roots production through Agrobacterium rhizogenes genetic transformation from Daucus carota explants. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci., 3(8), 23–27.

Ramirez, C. (1982). Manual and atlas of the Penicillia. Elsevier Biomed. Press., Amsterdam, New York, Oxford.

Rogers, P.M., Stevenson, W.R. (2010). Aggressiveness and fungicide sensitivity of Alternaria dauci from cultivated carrot. Plant Dis., 94(4), 405–412. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-94-4-0405

Santos, P., Nunez, J.J., Davis, R.M. (2000). Influence of gibberellic acid on carrot growth and severity of Alternaria leaf blight. Plant Dis., 84(5), 555–558.

Sarma, B.K., Yadav, S.K., Patel, J.S., Singh, N.B. (2014). Molecular mechanisms of interactions of Trichoderma with other fungal species. Open Mycol. J., 8, 140–147.

Schmidt, R., Gravuer, K., Bossange, A.V., Mitchell, J., Scow, K. (2018). Long-term use of cover crops and no-till shift soil microbial community life strategies in agricultural soil. PLoS ONE, 13(2), e0192953. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.019295

Smitha, C., Finosh, G.T., Rajesh, R., Abraham, P.K. (2014). Induction of hydrolytic enzymes of phytopathogenic fungi in response to Trichoderma viride influence biocontrol activity. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 3(9), 1207–1217.

Tülek, S., Dolar, F.S. (2015). Detection and identification of Alternaria species causing diseases of carrot in Ankara province, Turkey. Scientific Papers. Ser. B, Horticulture, LIX, 263–268.

Wu, H., Sun, L., Liu, F., Wang, Z., Cao, Ch. (2018). Preparation of dry flowable formulations of Clonostachys rosea by spray drying and application for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum control. J. Integrative Agric., 17(3), 613–620. DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(17)61811-2

Vanitha, S., Ramjegathesh, R. (2014). Bio control potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens against coleus root rot disease. J. Plant Pathol. Microbiol., 5, 216.

Zafar, M.M., Abrar, M., Umar, M., Bahoo, M.A., Khan, N.A., Salahuddin, M., Bilal, A., Abdullah (2017). Screening of different carrot varieties against Alternaria leaf blight and its chemical management. Researcher, 9(12), 8–14. DOI: 10.7537/marsrsj091217.02



Elżbieta Patkowska 
Department of Plant Protection, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Leszczyńskiego 7, 20–069 Lublin, Poland



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>