TOMATO (Solanum esculentum Mill.) YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL TRAITS ENHANCEMENT AS AFFECTED BY BIOCHAR, ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS
Seyed Mahdi NabaeiDepartment of Horticultural Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Reza HassandokhtCollege of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
Vahid AbdossiDepartment of Horticultural Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Reza ArdakaniDepartment of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
This experiment studied the effects of biochar and chicken manure tea compost on growth, productivity, and nutritional traits of tomato (Solanum esculentum MILL). A factorial based experiment within complete randomized block design with three replications was conducted to evaluate the traits. The results showed that the biochar + chemical fertilizer (TIB1) contained the significantly highest values of soil EC (1.81 dsm–1), total N (0.39%), available P (156.92 ppm), available K (442.22 ppm), leaf N (3.54%), leaf K (6.73%), and shoot dry weight (463 g). The treatment of (TIB1) increased the production of tomatoes by 393.9% above the control soil conditions. Signiﬁcant differences in fruit quality were observed. The biochar + chicken manure compost tea (1 : 4) (T3B1) treatment contained the highest values of total polyphenols (378.83 mg) and vitamin C (29.03 mg/100 g–1), it but did not significantly affect total soluble solid and titratable acidity values on average compared with control conditions. However, the application of biochar at 10 tons ha–1 cannot fully substitute for fertilizers. Therefore, nutrition management can be achieved by biochar plus inorganic and organic fertilizer to increase tomato productivity and quality, respectively.
Keywords:chicken manure, compost tea, fruit quality, Solanum esculentum Mill., soil properties, wood biochar
Adekiya, A.O., Agbede, T.M., Aboyeji, C.M., Dunsin, O., Simeon, V.T. (2018). Biochar and poultry manure effects on soil properties and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) yield. Biol. Agric. Hortic., doi.org/10.1080/01448765.2018.1500306.
Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N., Bird, M.I. (2016). Beneﬁts of biochar, compost and biochar–compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil. Sci. Total Environ., 543, 295–306.
Agegnehu, G., Srivastava, A.K., Bird, M.I. (2017). The role of biochar and biochar-compost in improving soil quality and crop performance: A review. Appl. Soil Ecol., 119, 156–170.
Ahmad, M., Rajapaksha, A.U., Lim, J.E., Zhang, M., Bolan, N., Mohan, D., Vithanage, M., Lee, S.S., Ok, Y.S. (2014). Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. Chemosphere, 99, 19–33.
Akhtar, S.S., Li, G., Andersen, M.N., Liu, F. (2014). Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation. Agric. Water Manage., 138, 37–44.
Alburquerque, J.A., Calero, J.M., Barrón, V., Torrent, J., Del Campillo, M.C., Gallardo, A., Villar, R. (2014). Effects of biochars produced from different feedstocks on soil properties and sunflower growth. J. Plant Nutr., 177, 16–25.
AOCS, (1990). In: Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemicsts’ Society (4thed.). American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign.
Black, C.A., Evans, D.D., Ensminger, L.E., White, J.L., Clark, F.E. (1965). Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 499–510.
Bremner, J. M. (1965). Total Nitrogen. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbial properties, Black, C.A. (ed.). Ser. Agronomy 9, American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Publisher, Madison, pp. 1049–1178.
Cantrell, K.B., Hunt, P.G., Uchimiya, M., Novak, J.M., Ro, K.S. (2012). Impact of pyrolysis temperature and manure source on physicochemical characteristics of biochar. Bioresour. Technol., 107, 419–428.
Carrera, L.M., Buyer, J.S., Vinyard, B., Abdul-Baki, A.A., Sikora, L.J., Teasdale, J.R. (2007). Effects of cover crops, compost, and manure amendments on soil microbial community structure in tomato production systems. Appl. Soil Ecol., 37, 247–255.
Dibb, D.W., Welch, J.F. (1976). Corn growth as affected by ammonium vs. nitrate absorbed from soil. Agron. J., 68, 89–94.
Dorais, M., Ehret, D.L., Papadopoulos, A.P. (2008). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) health components: from the seed to the consumer. Phytochem. Rev., 7, 231–250.
Ghorbani, R., Koocheki, A., Jahan, M., Asadi, G.A. (2008). Impact of organic amendments and compost extracts on tomato production and storability in agroecological systems. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 28, 307–311.
He, C., Manevski, K., Andersen, M.N., Hu, C., Dong, W., Li, J. (2019). Abiotic mechanisms for biochar effects on soil N2O emission. Int. Agrophys., 33, 537–546.
Heeb, A., Lundegardh, B., Ericsson, T., Savage, G.P. (2005). Effects of nitrate-, ammonium-, and organic-nitrogen-based fertilizers on growth and yield of tomatoes. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 168, 123–129.
Hossain, M.K., Strezov, V., Chan, K.Y., Nelson, P.F. (2010). Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Chemosphere, 78, 1167–1171.
Hoseinzade, H., Ardakani, M.R., Shahdi, A., Asadi Rahmani, H., Noormohammadi, G., Miransari, M. (2016). Rice (Oryza sativa L.) nutrient management using mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic Herbaspirillum seropedicae. J. Int. Agric., 15, 1385–1394.
Jackson, M.L. (1962). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 498 p.
Jeffery, S., Verheijen, F.G.A., van der Velde, M., Bastos, A.C. (2011). A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 144,175–187.
Kopta, T., Pokluda, R. (2013). Yields, quality and nutritional parameters of radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivars when grown organically in the Czech Republic. Hortic. Sci. (Prague), 1, 16–21.
Laird, D.A., Fleming, P.D., Davis, D.D., Horton, R., Wang, B., Karlen, D.L. (2010). Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a tipical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma, 158, 443–449.
Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (2009). Biochar for environmental management: science and technology, 1st ed. Earthscan, London.
Lehmann, J., Matthias, C.R., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C., Crowley, D. (2011). Biochar effects on soil biota – A review. Soil Biol. Biochem., 43, 1812–1836.
Martinez-Valverde, I., Periago, M.J., Provan, G., Chesson, A. (2002). Phenolic compounds, lycopene and antioxidant activity in commercial varieties of tomato. J. Sci. Food Agric., 82, 323–330.
Mitchell, A.E., Hong, Y.J., Koh, E., Barrett, D.M., Bryant, D.E., Denison, R.F., Kaffka, S. (2007). Ten-year comparison of the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on the content of flavonoids in tomatoes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 6154–6159.
Monterumici, C.M., Rosso, D., Montoneri, E., Ginepro, M., Baglieri, A., Novotny, E.H., Kwapinski, W., Negre, M. (2015). Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: Effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 16, 8826–8843.
Murphy, J., Riley, J.P. (1962). A modified single solution for determination of phosphate in natural water. Anal. Chim. Acta, 27, 35–36.
Olsen, S.R., Cole, C.V., Watanabe, F.S., Dean, L.A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA Circular 939.
Paneque, M., De la Rosa, J.M., Franco-Navarro, J.D., Colmenero-Flores, J. M., Knicker, H. (2016). Effect of biochar amendment on morphology, productivity and water relations of sunflower plants under non-irrigation conditions. Catena, 147, 280–287.
Petruccelli, R., Bonetti, A.,Traversi M. L., Faraloni, C., Valagussa, M., Pozzi, A. (2015). Inﬂuence of biochar application on nutritional quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Crop Pasture Sci., 66, 747–755.
Rhoades, J.D. (1982). Cation exchange capacity. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, Page, A.L, Miller, R.H., Keeney, D.R (eds.). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 149–157.
Satyapriya, S., Singh, P., Sangeetha, V., Paul, S., Barua, S., Mathur, P., Rathore, H., Keahava, K. (2019). Consumer behavioural intention and perception towards organic foods in national capital of India. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 89(4).
Sharifi, M, Ardakani, M.R., Alavi Fazel, M. (2019). Nutrient availability in peat-based growing media as affected by vermicompost, biochar and mycorrhizae inoculation for growing organic basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Acta Hortic., 1266, 275–281.
Thomas, G.W. (1982). Exchangeable cations. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2, Page, A.L. et al. (eds.), Agronomy Monographs 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, pp. 159–165.
Tiquia, S.M., Tam, N.F.Y. (2000). Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter. Environ. Pollut., 110, 535–541.
Vaccari, F.P., Maienza, A., Miglietta, F., Baronti, S., Lonardo, S. Di., Giagnoni, L., Lagomarsino, A., Pozzi, A., Pusceddu, E., Ranieri, R., Valboa, G., Genesio, L. (2015). Biochar stimulates plant growth but not fruit yield of processing tomato in a fertile soil. Agric., Ecosyst. Environ., 207, 163–170.
Vallverdú-Queralt, A., Medina-Remón, A., Casals-Ribes, I., Lamuela-Raventos Rosa, M. (2012). Is there any difference between the phenolic content of organic and conventional tomato juices? Food Chem., 130, 222–227.
Walker, D.J., Bernal, M.P. (2008). The eﬀects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the vailability and plant uptake of nutrients in a highly saline soil. Biores. Technol., 99, 396–403.
Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.
The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.