DETERMINATION OF PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN WALNUT (Juglans regia L.) VARIETIES
In this research, we examined some of the physical (fruit dimensions, geometric mean diameter sphericity and surface area) and mechanical (puncture force, deformation, energy absorption and hardness) properties on the four different domestic (Şebin, Kaman, Bilecik and Yalova-3) and two different foreign (Chandler and Fernor) walnut (Juglans regia) varieties. For this purpose, we applied puncture force on the walnuts at the direction of width orientation (x–x), length orientation (y–y) and suture orientation (z‒z). According to obtained results, there are significant differences among the walnut varieties for crustacean walnut weight and walnut weight. The maximum and minimum values of crustacean walnut weight were observed as 18.27 g and 10.98 g for Kaman and Chandler, respectively. In addition to these results, Bilecik has a maximum walnut weight – 8.71 g, while the minimum walnut weight was observed for Yalova-3 – 4.57 g. Furthermore, geometric mean diameter and sphericity values ranged to 31.93–38.57 mm and 82.78–92.54%, respectively. There are statistically significant differences on the puncture force, deformation, energy absorption and hardness according to the load axes. The maximum and minimum puncture force values were determined at the Fernor (572 N) with y–y axes and Chandler (211.9 N) with z–z axes, respectively. Also, the highest hardness and the lowest deformation values were obtained for Kaman (y–y axes) and the highest deformation and the lowest hardness were determined at Bilecik (x–x axes). The energy absorption values changed as follows: 0.455–1.086 J, 0.404–0.985 J and 0.426–1.051 J for x–x, y–y and z–z axes, respectively.
physical properties; mechanical properties; walnut
Altuntas, E., Mutlu, A. (2007). Antepfıstığı (Pistacia vera L.) kabuklu ve iç meyvesinin bazı fiziksel özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 24(1), 19–25.
Altuntas, E., Yıldız, M. (2007). Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) grains. J. Food Eng., 78, 174–183.
Altuntas, E., Ozkan, Y. (2008). Physical and mechanical properties of some walnut (Juglans regia L.) cultivars. Int. J. Food Eng., 4, 10–16.
Arslan, S., Vursavus, K.K. (2008). Physico-mechanical properties of almond nut and its kernel as a function of variety and moisture content. Philippine Agric. Sci., 91(2), 171–179.
Aydin, C. (2003). Physical properties of almond nut and kernel. J. Food Eng., 60, 315–320.
Balasubramanian, D. (2001). PH–postharvest technology: physical properties of raw cashew nut. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 78(3), 291–297.
Çaǧlarırmak, N. (2003). Biochemical and physical properties of some walnut genotypes (Juglans regia L.). Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 47(1), 28–32.
Çiftçi, K. (2004). İzmir ve Manisa illerinde ceviz yetiştiriciliğinin sosyo-ekonomik yönü ve sorunları üzerine bir araştırma. Ege Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, 89 s. İzmir.
Delprete, C., Sesana, R. (2014). Mechanical characterization of kernel and shell of hazelnuts: proposal of an experimental procedure. J. Food Eng., 124, 28–34.
Ercisli, S., Mazhar, K.A.R.A., Ozturk, I., Sayinci, B., Kalkan, F. (2011). Comparison of some physico-mechanical nut and kernel properties of two walnut (Juglans regia L.)cultivars. Not. Bot. Horti Agrobot. Cluj-Napoca, 39(2), 227.
FAO (2016). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC. [Date of access: 06.04.2018]
Galedar, M.N., Mohtasebi, S.S., Tabatabaeefar, A., Jafari, A., Fadaei, H. (2009). Mechanical behavior of pistachio nut and its kernel under compression loading. J. Food Eng., 95(3), 499–504.
Giacosa, S., Belviso, S., Bertolino, M., Dal Bello, B., Gerbi, V., Ghirardello, D., Rolle, L. (2016). Hazelnut kernels (Corylus avellana L.) mechanical and acoustic properties determination: comparison of test speed, compression or shear axis, roasting, and storage condition effect. J. Food Eng., 173, 59–68.
Güzel, E., Ülger, P., Kayışoğlu, B. (1999). Ürün işleme ve değerlendirme tekniği (Food Processing Technology of Agricultural Materials). Çukurova Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Genel Yayın No. 145 Adana, Türkiye.
http://ogm.gov.tr/kutuphane/Yayinlar/Ceviz%20Eylem%20Plan%C4%B1.pdf. [Date of access: 06.05.2018]
Kashaninejad, M., Mortazavi, A., Safekordi, A., Tabil, L.G. (2006). Some physical properties of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut and its kernel. J. Food Eng., 72(1), 30–38.
Kibar, H., Öztürk, T. (2009). The effect of moisture content on the physico-mechanical properties of some hazelnut varieties. J. Stored Prod. Res., 45(1), 14–18.
Koçtürk, B.Ö., Gürhan, R. (2007). Değişik ceviz çeşitlerinin farklı nem değerlerindeki bazı mekanik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Ankara Univ. J. Agric. Sci., 13, 62–68.
Koyuncu, M.A., Ekinci, K., Savran, E. (2004). Cracking characteristics of walnut. Biosyst. Eng., 87, 305–311.
Ledbetter, C.A., Palmquist, D.E. (2006). Comparing physical measures and mechanical cracking products of ‘Nonpareil’ almond (Prunus dulcis [Mill.] DA Webb.) with two advanced breeding selections. J. Food Eng., 76(2), 232–237.
Mirzabe, A.H., Khazaei, J., Chegini, G.R., Gholami, O. (2013). Some physical properties of almond nut and kernel and modeling dimensional properties. Agric. Eng. Int., CIGR J., 15(2), 256–265.
Olajide, J.D., Ade-Omowaye, B.I.O. (1999). Some physical properties of locust bean seed. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 74, 213–215.
Rasouli, M., Mollazade, K., Fatahi, R., Zamani, Z., Imani, A., Martínez-Gómez, P. (2010). Evaluation of engineering properties in almond nuts. Int. J. Nat. Eng. Sci., 4(1), 17–26.
Sirisomboon, P., Pornchaloempong, P., Romphophak, T. (2007). Physical properties of green soybean: criteria for sorting. J. Food Eng., 79, 18–22.
Sunmonu, M.O., Iyanda, M.O., Odewole, M.M., Moshood, A.N. (2015). Determination of some mechanical properties of almond seed related to design of food processing machines. Nigerian J. Technol. Dev., 12(1), 22–26.
Şen, S.M. (2011). Ceviz Yetiştiriciliği-Besin Değeri-Folklorü. ÜÇM yayıncılık, Ankara, 169–170.
Şen, S.M. (1986) . Ceviz Yetiştiriciliği. Eser Matbaası, Samsun.
Valentini, N., Rolle, L., Stévigny, C., Zeppa, G. (2006). Mechanical behaviour of hazelnuts used for table consumption under compression loading. J. Sci. Food Agric., 86(8), 1257–1262.
Yurtlu, Y.B., Yeşiloğlu, E. (2011). Mechanical behaviour and split resistance of chestnut under compressive loading. Tarım Bilim. Derg., 17(4).
Articles are made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 (recognition by authorship, non-commercial use, no dependent works).
The author signs a statement on the originality of the work and the contribution of individuals.
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.