Mahendra Rai

Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra, India

Aniket Gade

Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra, India

Beata Zimowska

Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Plant Pathology and Mycology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 7 K. St. Leszczyńskiego Street, 20-068 Lublin, Poland

Avinash P. Ingle

Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena – University of São Paulo Area I – Lorena-SP – Brazil

Pramod Ingle

Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra, India


Endophytes are those inhabiting in plants without causing any apparent loss to the host plant. Phoma is a ubiquitously found genus of fungi in soil, water and air. Endophytic Phoma spp. are distributed with high specific diversity, those occur in plants and are mainly responsible for the production of a vast range of secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites or the bioactive compounds have demonstrated a wide range of activity ranging from antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, algicidal, cytotoxic, antitubercular and plant growth promoting, etc. Bioactive compounds are produced by Phoma herbarum, P. sorghina, P. exigua, P. macrostoma, P. medicaginis, P. betae, P. tropica and others. The present review emphasizes on different species of endophytic Phoma as novel source of bioactive compounds, and their applications in medicine and agriculture are documented.


endophytes, Phoma, secondary metabolites, bioactive compounds, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities

Alvin, A., Miller, K.I., Neilan, B.A. (2014). Exploring the potential of endophytes from medicinal plants as sources of antimycobacterial compounds. Microbiol. Res., 169, 483–495. DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2013.12.009

Arora, P., Wani, Z.A., Nalli, Y., Ali A., Hassan, S.R. (2016). Antimicrobial potential of thiodiketopiperazine derivatives produced by Phoma sp., an endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Microb. Ecol., 72, 802–812. DOI: 10.1007/s00248-016-0805-x

Aveskamp, M.M., Gruyter, J., de, Crous, P.W. (2008). Biology and recent developments in the systematics of Phoma, a complex genus of major quarantine significance. Fungal. Divers., 31, 1–18.

Aveskamp, M.M., Gruyter, J., de, Woudenberg, J.H.C., Varkley, G.J.M., Crous, P.W. (2010). Highlights of the Didymellaceae: A polyphasic approach to characterise Phoma and related pleosporalean genera. Stud. Mycol., 65, 1–60. DOI: 10.3114/sim.2010.65.01

Balmas, V., Scherm, B., Ghignone, S., Salem, A.O.M., Cacciola, S.O., Migheli, Q. (2005). Characterization of Phoma tracheiphila by RAPD-PCR, microsatellite-primed PCR and ITS rDNA sequencing and development of specific primers for in planta PCR detection. European. J. Plant. Pathol., 111, 235–247.

Bharathidasan, R., Panneerselvam, A. (2011). Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi from Avicennia marina in Ramanathapuram District, Karankadu, Tamilnadu, India. Eur. J. Exper. Biol., 1, 31–36.

Bick, I.R.C., Rhee, C (1966). Anthraquinone pigments from Phoma foveata Foister. Biochem. J., 98(1), 112–126. DOI: 10.1042/bj0980112

Boerema, G.H., Gruyter, J., de, Noordeloos, M.E., Hamers, M.E.C. (2004). Phoma identification manual. Differentiation of specific and infra-specific taxa in culture. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Borges, W.D.S., Pupo, M.T. (2006). Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 17, 929–934. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532006000500017

Carroll, G. (1988). Fungal endophytes in stems and leaves: from latent pathogen to mutualistic symbiont. Ecology, 69, 2–9.

Che, Y., Gloer, J.B., Wicklow, D.T. (2002). Phomadecalins A–D and Phomapentenone A: New Bioactive Metabolites from Phoma sp. NRRL 25697, a fungal colonist of Hypoxylon Stromata. J. Nat. Prod., 65, 399–402. DOI: 10.1021/np010519o

Comby, M., Gacoin, M., Robineau, M., Rabenoelina, F., Ptas, S., Dupont, J., Profizi C., Baillieul, F. (2017). Screening of wheat endophytes as biological control agents against Fusarium head blight using two different in vitro tests. Microbiol. Res., 202, 11–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.micres.2017.04.014

De Bary, A. (1866). Holfmeister’s Handbook of Physiological Botany, vol. 2. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzing.

De Siqueira, V.M., Conti, R., Magali de Araújo, J., Souza-Motta, C.M. (2011). Endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Lippia sidoides Cham. and their antimicrobial activity. Symbiosis, 53, 89–95. DOI: 10.1007/s13199-011-0113-7

Eyberger, A.L., Dondapati, R., Porter, J.R. (2006). Endophyte fungal isolates from Podophyllum peltatum produce podophyllotoxin. J. Nat. Prod., 69, 1121–1124.

Garcia-Effron, G., Park, S., Perlin, D.S. (2009). Correlating echinocandin MIC and kinetic inhibition of fks1 mutant glucan synthases for Candida albicans: implications for interpretive breakpoints. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 53, 112–122. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01162-08

Ge, H.M., Song, Y.C., Shan, C.Y., Ye, Y.H., Tan, R.X. (2005). New and cytotoxic anthraquinones from Pleospora sp. IFB-E006, an endophytic fungus in Imperata cylindrical. Planta Med., 71, 1063–1065. DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-864190

Gruyter, J., de, Woudenberg. J.H.C., Aveskamp. M.M., Verkley. G.J.M., Groenewald, J.Z., Crous. P.W. (2010). Systematic reappraisal of species in Phoma section Paraphoma, Pyrenochaeta and Pleuro. Mycologia, 102, 1066–1081. DOI: 10.3852/09-240

Gruyter, J., de, Aveskamp, M.M., Woudenberg, J.H.C., Verkley, G.J.M., Groenewald, J.Z., Crous, P.W. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of Phoma and allied anamorph genera: Towards a reclassification of the Phoma complex. Mycol. Res., 113, 508–519. DOI: 10.1016/j.mycres.2009.01.002

Gruyter, J., de, Woudenberg, J.H.C., Aveskamp, M.M., Verkley, G.J.M., Groenewald, J.Z., Crous, P.W. (2012). Redisposition of Phoma-like anamorphs in Pleosporales. Stud. Mycol., 75, 1–36. DOI: 10.3114/sim0004

Gubiani, J.R., Wijeratne, K., Shi, E.M., Araujo, T., Elizabeth, E.A., Arnold, A., Chapman, E., Gunatilaka, A.A.L. (2017). An epigenetic modifier induces production of (10’S)-verruculide B, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases by Phoma sp. nov. LG0217, a fungal endophyte of Parkinsonia microphylla. Bioorg. Med. Chem. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.01.048

Gupta, S., Kaul, S., Singh, B., Vishwakarma, R.A., Dhar, M.K. (2016). Production of Gentisyl Alcohol from Phoma herbarum endophytic in Curcuma longa L. and its antagonistic activity towards leaf spot pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 180, 1093–1109.

Hamayun, M., Khan, S.A., Khan, A.L., Rehman, G., Sohn, E.Y., Shah, A.A., Kim, S.K., Joo, G.J., Lee, I.J. (2009). Phoma herbarum as a new gibberellin-producing and plant growth-promoting fungus. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 19, 1244–1249. DOI: 10.4014/jmb.0901.0030

Hamzah, T., Lee S., Hidayat, A., Terhem, R., Faridah-Hanum, I., Mohamed, R. (2018). Diversity and characterization of endophytic fungi isolated from the tropical mangrove species, Rhizophora mucronata, and identification of potential antagonists against the soil-borne fungus, Fusarium solani. Front. Microbiol., 9, 1707. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01707

Hensens, O.D., Ondeyka, J.G., Dombrowski, A.W., Ostlind, D.A., Zink D.L. (1999). Isolation and structure of nodulisporic acid A1 and A2, novel insecticides from a Nodulisporium sp. Tetrahedron. Lett., 40, 5455–5458. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(99)01064-3

Hirsh, G.U., Braun, U. (1992). Communities of parasitic microfungi. In: Handbook of vegetation science: Fungi in vegetation science, Vol. 19, Winterhoff, W. (ed.). Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 225–250.

Hoffman, A.M., Mayer, S.G., Strobel, G.A., Hess W.M., Sovocool, W., Grange, A.H., Kelley-Swift, E.G. (2008). Purification, identification and activity of phomodione, afurandione from an endophytic Phoma species. Phytochemistry, 69, 1049–1056. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.10.031

Hosseinzadeh, H., Nassiri-Asl, M. (2015). Pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza spp. and its bioactive constituents: update and review. Phytother. Res., 29, 1868–1886. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5487

Huang, S., Xu, J., Li, F., Zhou, D., Xu, L., Li, C. (2017). Identification and antifungal activity of metabolites from the mangrove fungus Phoma sp. L28. Chem. Nat. Comp., 53, 237–240. DOI: 10.1007/s10600-017-1961-z

Hynes, R.K. (2018). Phoma macrostoma: as a broad spectrum bioherbicide for turfgrass and agricultural applications. CAB Rev., 13, 005. DOI: 10.1079/PAVSNNR201813005

Jacob, M., Bhat, D.J. (2000). Two new endophytic conidial fungi from India. Cryptogam. Mycol., 21, 81–88. DOI: 10.1016/S0181-1584(00)00116-0

Karsten, K., Umar, F., Ulrich, F., Barbara, S., Siegfried, D., Gennaro, P., Piero, S., Sándor, A., Tibor, K. (2007). Secondary metabolites isolated from an endophytic Phoma sp. absolute configuration of tetrahydropyrenophorol using the solid-state TDDFT CD methodology. Eur. J. Org. Chem., 19, 3206–3211. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.200601128

Kedar, A., Rathod, D., Yadav, A., Agarkar, G., Rai, M. (2014). Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays. Nusantara Biosci., 6, 132–139. DOI: 10.13057/nusbiosci/n060205

Khan, A., Gilani, S., Waqas, M., Al-Hosni, K., Al-Khiziri, S., Kim, Y., Ali, L., Kang, S., Asaf, S., Shahzad, R., Hussain, J., Lee I., Al-Harrasi, A. (2017). Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B Biomed. Biotechnol., 18, 125–137. DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1500271

Khan, R., Shahzad, S., Choudhary, M.I., Khan, S.A., Ahmad, A. (2007). Biodiversity of the endophytic fungi isolated from Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. Pak. J. Bot., 39, 2233–2239.

Kiprono, P.C., Kaberia, F., Keriko, J.M., Karanja, J.N. (2000). The in vitro anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activities of beta-sitosterol from Senecio lyratus (Asteraceae). Z. Naturforsch. (C), 55, 485–488. DOI: 10.1515/znc-2000-5-629

Kobayashi, D.Y., Palumbo, J.D. (2000). Bacterial endophytes and their effects on plants and uses in agriculture. In: Microbial Endophytes, Bacon, C.W, White, J.F (eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, 199–236.

Koch, C.A., Utkhede, R.S. (2004). Development of a multiplex classical polymerase chain reaction technique for detection of Didymella bryoniae in infected cucumber tissues and greenhouse air samples. Can. J. Plant. Pathol., 26, 291–298. DOI: 10.1080/07060660409507146

Krohn, K., Farooq, U., Flörke, U., Schulz, B., Draeger, S., Pescitelli, G., Salvadori, P., Antus, S., Kurtán, T. (2007). Secondary metabolites isolated from an endophytic Phoma sp. – Absolute Configuration of Tetrahydropyrenophorol using the solid-state TDDFT CD methodology. Eur. J. Org. Chem., 3206–3211. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.200601128

Kumaran, R.S., Choi, Y.K., Lee, S., Jeon, H.J., Jung, H., Kim, H.J. (2014). Isolation of taxol, an anticancer drug produced by the endophytic fungus, Phoma betae. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11, 950–960. DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.1937

Kusari, S., Lamshӧft, M., Spiteller, M. (2009a). Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro-drug deoxypodophyllotoxin. J. Appl. Microbiol., 107, 1019–1030. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04285.x

Kusari S., Lamshӧft M., Zühlke S., Spiteller M., 2008. An endophytic fungus from Hypericum perforatum that produces hypericin. J. Nat. Prod., 71, 159–162. DOI: 10.1021/np070669k

Kusari, S., Verma, V.C., Lamsho, ft M., Spiteller, M. (2012). An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 28, 1287–1294. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-011-0876-2

Kusari, S., Zühlke, S., Kosuth, J., Čellárová, E., Spiteller, M. (2009b). Light independent metabolomics of endophytic Thielavia subthermophila provides insight into microbial hypericin biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 72, 1825–1835. DOI: 10.1021/np9002977

Kusari, S., Zühlke, S., Spiteller, M. (2009c). An endophytic fungus from Camptotheca acuminata that produces camptothecin and analogues. J. Nat. Prod., 72, 2–7. DOI: 10.1021/np800455b

Larran, S., Simón, M.R., Moreno, M.V., Siurana, M.P.S., Perelló, A. (2016). Endophytes from wheat as biocontrol agents against tan spot disease. Biol. Control., 92, 17–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.09.002

Lasala, J.M., Stone, G.W., Dawkins, K.D., (2006). An Overview of the TAXUS® Express®, Paclitaxel‐Eluting Stent Clinical Trial Program. J. Interv. Cardiol., 19(5), 422–431. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8183.2006.00183.x

Liu, S.S., Jiang, J.X., Huang, R., Wang, Y.T., Jiang, B.G., Zheng, K.X., Wu, S.H. (2019). A new antiviral 14-nordrimane sesquiterpenoid from an endophytic fungus Phoma sp. Phytochem. Lett., 29, 75–78. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytol.2018.11.005

Marler, M., Pedersen, D., Mitchell-Olds, T., Callaway, R.M. (1999). A polymerase chain reaction method for detecting dwarf mistletoe infection in Douglas-fir and western larch. Can. J. For. Res., 29, 1317–1321. DOI: 10.1139/x99-092

Martinez-Klimova, E., Rodríguez-Peña, K., Sánchez, S. (2017). Endophytes as sources of antibiotics. Biochem. Pharmacol., 134, 1–17. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2016.10.010

Melmed, R.N., Ishai-Michaeli, R., Yagen, B. (1985). Differential inhibition by T-2 toxin of total protein, DNA and isoprenoid synthesis in the culture macrophage cell line J744. Biochem. Pharmacol., 34, 2809–2812. DOI: 10.1016/0006-2952(85)90583-0

Michael, A.C., Mierzwa, R., King ,A., Loebenverg, D., Bishop, W.R., Puar, M., Patel, M., Coval, S.J., Hershenhorn, J., Strobel, G.A. (1992). Usnic acid amide, a phytotoxin and antifungal agent from Cercosporidium henningsii. Phytochemistry, 31, 2999–3001. DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(92)83434-Z

Monte, E., Bridge, P.D., Sutton, B.C. (1991). An integrated approach to Phoma systematics. Mycopathologia, 115, 89–103.

Moster, L., Crous P.W., Petrini O. (2000). Endophytic fungi associated with shoots and leaves of Vitis vinifera, and specific reference to the Phomopsis viticola complex. Sydowia, 52, 46–58.

Muhammad, H., Khan, S.A., Khan, A.L., Rehman, G., Sohn, E.Y., Shah, A.A., Kim, S.K., Joo, G.J., Lee, I.J. (2009). Phoma herbarum as a new gibberellin-producing and plant growth-promoting fungus. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 19, 1244–1249. DOI: 10.4014/jmb.0901.0030

Nisa, H., Kamili, A.N., Nawchoo, A.I., Shafi, S., Shameem, N., Bandh, S.A. (2015). Fungal endophytes as prolific source of phytochemicals and other bioactive natural products: A review. Microb. Pathog., DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2015.04.001

Oberlie, N.H., Kroll, D.J. (2004). Camptothecin and taxol: historic achievements in natural products research. J. Nat. Prod., 67, 129–35. DOI: 10.1021/np030498t

Osterhage, C., Konig, G.M., Jones, P.G., Wright, A.D. (2002). 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a new natural product produced by Phoma tropica, a marine derived fungus derived from alg Fucus spiralis. Plant. Med., 68, 1052–1054. DOI: 10.1055/s-2002-35670

Osterhage, C., Schwibibble, M., Konig, G.M., Wright, A.D. (2000). Differences between marine amnd terrestrial Phoma species as determined by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. Phytochem. Anal., 11, 288–294. DOI: 10.1002/1099-1565(200009/10)11:5%3C288::AID-PCA528%3E3.0.CO;2-G

Paynter, Q., Waipara, N., Peterson, P., Hona, S., Fowler, S., Gianotti, A., Wilkie, P. (2006). The impact of two introduced biocontrol agents, Phytomyza vitalbae and Phoma clematidina, on Clematis vitalba in New Zealand. Biol. Control., 36, 350–357. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2005.09.011

Petrini, O. (1991). Fungal endophytes of tree leaves. In: Microbial Ecology of Leaves, Andrews, J., Hirano, S. (eds.), 179–197. Springer Verlag, New York–Berlin–Heidelberg–London–Paris–Tokyo–Hong Kong–Barcelona–Budapest.

Pharamat, T., Palaga, T., Piapukiew, J., Whalley, A.J.S., Sihanonth, P. (2013). Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of endophytic fungi from Mitrajyna javanica Koord and Val. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 7, 5565–5572. DOI: 10.5897/AJMR12.2352

Puri, S.C., Verma, V., Amna, T., Qazi, G.N., Spiteller, M. (2005). An endophytic fungus from Nothapodytes foetida that produces camptothecin. J. Nat. Prod., 68, 1717–1719. DOI: 10.1021/np0502802

Qin, S., Hussaina, H., Schulz, B., Draeger, S., Krohn, K. (2010). Two New Metabolites, Epoxydine A and B, from Phoma sp., Helv. Chim. Acta, 93(1), 19–174. DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200900199

Rai, M., Agarkar, G. (2015). Plant-fungal interactions: What triggers the fungi to switch among lifestyles? Crit. Rev. Microbiol., 42, 428–438. DOI: 10.3109/1040841X.2014.958052

Rai, M., Gade, A., Zimowska, B., Ingle, A.P., Ingle, P. (2018). Marine-derived Phoma-the gold mine of bioactive compounds. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 102 , 9053–9066. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9329-2

Rai, M., Rathod, D., Agarkar, G., Dar, M., Brestic, M., Marostica Junior, M.R. (2014). Fungal growth promotor endophytes: a pragmatic approach towards sustainable food and agriculture. Symbiosis, 62, 63–79. DOI: 10.1007/s13199-014-0273-3

Rai, M., Rathod, D., Ingle, A., Proksch, P., Kon, K., (2013). Biocidal Metabolites from Endophytes Occurring in Medicinal Plants. In: Natural Antioxidants and Biocides from Wild Medicinal Plants, Cespedes, C., Sampietro, D., Rai, M., Seigler, D. (eds.). CABI, U.K., 56–64.

Rebecca, I.N.A., Kumar, D.J.M., Srimathi, S., Muthumary, J., Kalaichelvan, P.T. (2011). Isolation of Phoma species from Aloe vera: an endophyte and screening the fungus for taxol production. World. J. Sci. Technol., 1, 23–31.

Saikkonen, K., Faeth, S.H., Helander, M., Sullivan, T.J. (1998). Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 319–343.

Santiago, C., Fitchett, C., Munro, M.H.G., Jalil, J., Santhanam, J. (2012). Cytotoxic and antifungal activities of 5-hydroxyramulosin, a compound produced by an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med., Article ID 689310. DOI: 10.1155/2012/689310

Schardl, C.L., Liu, J.S., White, J.F., Finkel, R.A., An Z., Siegel, M.R. (1991). Molecular phylogenetic relationships of nonpathogenic grass mycosymbionts and clavicipitaceous plant pathogens. Plant. Syst. Evol., 178, 27–41.

Schulz, B., Boyle, C. (2005). The endophyte continuum. Mycol. Res., 109, 661–689. PMID: 16080390.

Shweta, S., Zuehlke, S., Ramesha, B.T., Priti, V., Mohana Kumar, P., Ravikanth, G., Spiteller, M., Vasudeva, R., Uma Shaanker, R. (2010). Endophytic fungal strains of Fusarium solani, from Apodytes dimidiate E. Mey. ex Arn (Icacinaceae) produce camptothecin, 10-hydroxycamptothecin and 9-methoxycamptothecin. Phytochemistry, 71, 117–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.09.030

Stewart-Wade, S.M., Boland, G.J. (2005). Oil emulsions increase efficacy of Phoma herbarum to control dandelion but are phytotoxic. Biocontrol. Sci. Technol., 15, 671–681. DOI: 10.1080/09583150500136873

Stierle, A., Strobel, G.A., Stierle, D. (1993). Taxol and taxane production by Taxomyces andreanae, an endophytic fungus of Pacific yew. Science, 260, 214–216.

Stone, J.K., Bacon, C.W., White, J.F. (2000). An overview of endophytic microbes:endophytism defined. In: Microbial Endophytes, Bacon, C.W, White, J.F (eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 3–30.

Strobel, G., Daisy, B. (2003). Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 67, 491–502.

Strobel, G., Daisy, B., Castillo, U., Harper, J. (2004). Natural products from endophytic microorganisms. J. Nat. Prod., 67, 257–68.

Strobel, G., Knighton, B., Kluck, K., Ren, Y., Livinghouse, T., Griffen, M., Spakowicz, D., Sears, J. (2008). The production of myco-diesel hydrocarbons and their derivatives by the endophytic fungus Gliocladium roseum. Microbiology, 154, 3319–3328. DOI: 10.1099/mic.0.30824-0

Strobel, G., Singh, S.K., Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, S., Mitchell, A.M., Geary, B., Sears, J. (2011). An endophytic/pathogenic Phoma sp. from creosote bush producing biologically active volatile compounds having fuel potential. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 320, 87–94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2011.02297.x

Strobel, G.A. (2002). Microbial gifts from the rainforest. Can. J. Phytopathol. 24, 14–20.

Suryanarayanan, T.S., Murali, T.S., Venkatesan, G. (2002). Occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in tropical forests across a rainfall gradient. Can. J. Bot., 80, 818–826. DOI: 10.1139/b02-069

Tijerino, A., Cardoza, R.E., Moraga, J., Malmierca, M.G., Vicente, F., Aleu, J., Collado, I.G., Gutiérrez, S., Monte, E., Hermos, R. (2011). Overexpression of the trichodiene synthase gene tri5 increases trichodermin production and antimicrobial activity in Trichoderma brevicompactum. Fungal. Genet. Biol., 48, 285–296. DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2010.11.012

Tooker, J.F., Hanks, L.M. (2004). Trophic position of the endophytic beetle, Mordellistena aethiops Smith (Coleoptera: Mordellidae). Environ. Entomol., 33, 291–296. DOI: 10.1603/0046-225X-33.2.291

Trémouillaux-Guiller, J., Rohr, T., Rohr, R., Huss, V.A.R. (2002). Discovery of an endophytic alga in Ginkgo biloba. Am. J. Bot., 89, 727–733.

Vieira, M.L., Hughes, A.F., Gil, V.B., Vaz, A.B., Alves, T.M., Zani, C.L., Rosa, C.A., Rosa, L.H. (2012). Diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophyte community associated with the traditional Brazilian medicinal plant Solanum cernuum Vell. (Solanaceae). Can. J. Microbiol., 58, 54–66. DOI: 10.1139/W11-105

Vries, S., de, Dahlen, J.K., von, Schnake, A., Ginschel, S., Schulz, B., Rose, L.E. (2018). Broad-spectrum inhibition of Phytophthora infestans by fungal endophytes. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 94(4), fiy 037. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiy037

Wang, L.W., Xu, B.G., Wang, J.Y., Su, Z.Z., Lin, F.C., Zhang, C.L., Kubicek, C.P. (2012). Bioactive metabolites from Phoma species, an endophytic fungus from the Chinese medicinal plant Arisaema erubescens. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 93, 1231–1239. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-011-3472-3

Waqas, M., Khan, A.L., Hamayun, M., Kamran, M., Kang, S.M., Kim, Y.H., Lee, I.J. (2012a). Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed germination. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 11, 15135–15143.

Waqas, M., Khan, A.L., Kamran, M., Hamayun, M., Kang, S.M., Kim, Y.H., Lee, I.J. (2012b). Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indole-acetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress. Molecules, 17, 10754–10773. DOI: 10.3390/molecules170910754

Weber, R.W.S., Stenger, E., Meffert, A., Hahn, M. (2004). Brefeldin A production by Phoma medicaginis in dead pre-colonized plant tissue: a strategy for habitat conquest? Mycol. Res., 108, 662–671. DOI: 10.1017/S0953756204000243

Wilson, D. (1995). Endophyte – the evolution of the term, a clarification of its use and definition. Oikos, 73, 274–276.

Wink, M. (2008). Plant secondary metabolism: diversity, function and its evolution. Nat. Prod. Commun., 3, 1205–1216.

Wijeratne, E.K., He, H., Franzblau, S.G., Hoffman, A.M., Gunatilaka, A.L. (2013). Phomapyrrolidones A–C, antitubercular alkaloids from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. NRRL 46751. J. Nat. Prod., 76(10), 1860–1865. DOI: 10.1021/np400391p

Xia, X., Kim, S., Bang, S., Lee, H.J., Liu, C., Park, C.I., Shim, S.H. (2014). Barceloneic acid C, a new polyketide from an endophytic fungus Phoma sp. JS752 and its antibacterial activities. J. Antibiot., 1–3. DOI: 10.1038/ja.2014.116

Yang, X., Strobel, G., Stierle, A., Hess, W.M., Lee, J., Clardy, J. (1994). A fungal endophyte-tree relationship: Phoma sp. in Taxus wallachiana. Plant Sci., 102, 1–9. DOI: 10.1016/0168-9452(94)90017-5

Yarden, O., Ainsworth, T.D., Roff, G., Leggat, W., Fine, M., Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2007). Increased prefalence of ubiquitous ascomycetes in an acropoid coral (Acropora formosa) exibiting symptoms of brown band syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease. Appl. Env. Microbiol., 73, 2755–2757. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02738-06

Zaiyou, J., Li, M., Xiqiao, H. (2017). An endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel isolated from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei. Medicine, 96, 27(e7406). DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000007406

Zakaria, L., Aziz, W.N.W. (2018). Molecular identification of endophytic fungi from banana leaves (Musa spp.). Tropical. Life. Sci. Res., 29, 201–211. DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2018.29.2.14

Zhang, L., Wang, S.Q., Li X.J., Zhang, A.L., Zhang, Q., Gao, J.M. (2012). New insight into the stereochemistry of botryosphaeridione from a Phoma endophyte. J. Mol. Struct., 1016, 72–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2012.02.041

Zhang, W., Krohn, K., Egold, H., Draeger, S., Schulz, B. (2008). Diversity of antimicrobial pyrenophorol derivatives from an endophytic fungus, Phoma sp. Eur. J. Organic. Chem., 25, 4320–4328. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.200800404

Zhao, S., Shamoun, S.F. (2006). Effects of cultre media, temperature, pH, and light on growth, sporulation, germination, and bioherbicidal efficacy of Phoma exigua, a potential biological control agent for salal (Gaultheria shallon). Biocontrol. Sci. Technol., 16, 1043–1055. DOI: 10.1080/09583150600828643

Zhou, L., Bailey, K.L., Derby, J. (2004). Plant colonization and environmental fate of the biocontrol fungus Phoma macrostoma. Biol. Control., 30, 634–644. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2004.03.002



Mahendra Rai 
Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra, India https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0291-0422
Aniket Gade 
Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1966-999X
Beata Zimowska 
Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Plant Pathology and Mycology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 7 K. St. Leszczyńskiego Street, 20-068 Lublin, Poland https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5524-7623
Avinash P. Ingle 
Department of Biotechnology, Engineering School of Lorena – University of São Paulo Area I – Lorena-SP – Brazil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1633-5775
Pramod Ingle 
Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati-444602, Maharashtra, India https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2801-6939



Articles are made available under the conditions CC BY 4.0 (until 2020 under the conditions CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
Submission of the paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

The author signs a statement of the originality of the work, the contribution of individuals, and source of funding.


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>